The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach. 1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves
Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. Some key points on Mentoring * Mentoring focus on attitude development * Conducted for management-level employees * Mentoring is done by someone inside the company * It is one-to-one interaction * It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over a period of a few years.
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Benefits of Job Rotation | Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: * It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries * Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required * It determines the areas where improvement is required * Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.
Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT) JIT consists of four steps:| | * Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on.
Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees’ i. e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc. * Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions. | * Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. | Off-the-job training This occurs when employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained. Common methods of off-the-job training include: *
Day release (employee takes time off work to attend a local college or training centre) * Distance learning / evening classes * Block release courses – which may involve several weeks at a local college * Sandwich courses – where the employee spends a longer period of time at college (e. . six months) before returning to work * Sponsored courses in higher education * Self-study, computer-based training Training Inputs: * Skills * Education * Development * Ethics * Problem Solving Skills * Decision Making * Attitudinal Changes Importance of Training & Development: * Helps remove performance deficiencies in employees * Greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization * Accidents, scraps and damages to machinery can be avoided * Serves as effective source of recruitment It is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future * Reduces dissatisfaction, absenteeism, complaints and turnover of employees Need of Training Individual level: * Diagnosis of present problems and future challenges * Improve individual performance or fix up performance deficiency * Improve skills or knowledge or any other problem * To anticipate future skill-needs and prepare employee to handle more challenging tasks * To prepare for possible job transfers Need of Group level: *
To face any change in organization strategy at group levels * When new products and services are launched To avoid scraps and accident rates Barriers to Effective Training: 1. Lack of Management commitment 2. Inadequate Training budget 3. Education degrees lack skills 4. Large scale poaching of trained staff 5. Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends 6. Employers and B Schools operating distantly 7. Unions influence How To Make Training Effective? 1. Management Commitment 2. Training & Business Strategies Integration 3. Comprehensive and Systematic Approach 4. Continuous and Ongoing approach 5. Promoting learning as Fundamental Value 6. Creations of effective training evaluation system
STEPS IN TRAINING PROCESS STEP 1: Establishing A Needs Analysis This step identifies activities to justify an investment for training. The techniques necessary for the data collection are surveys, observations, interviews, and customer comment cards. Several examples of an analysis outlining specific training needs are customer dissatisfaction, low morale, low productivity, and high turnover. The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions: “Why” is training needed? “What” type of training is needed? “When” is the training needed? Where” is the training needed? “Who” needs the training? And “Who” will conduct the training? “How” will the training be performed? By determining training needs, an organization can decide what specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes are needed to improve the employee’s performance, the needs analysis is the starting point for all training. The primary objective of all training is to improve individual and organizational performance. Establishing a needs analysis is, and should always be the first step of the training process. STEP 2: Developing Training Programs and Manuals
This step establishes the development of current job descriptions and standards and procedures. Job descriptions should be clear and concise and may serve as a major training tool for the identification of guidelines. Once the job description is completed, a complete list of standards and procedures should be established from each responsibility outlined in the job description. This will standardize the necessary guidelines for future training. STEP 3: Deliver the Training Program This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program.
Once you have designated your trainers, the training technique must be decided. One-on-one training, on-the-job training, group training, seminars, and workshops are the popular methods. For a training program to be successful, the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements, including a controlled environment, good planning, and the use of various training methods, good communication skills, and trainee participation. STEP 4: Evaluate the Training Program This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been.
Methods for evaluation are pre-and post- surveys of customer comments cards, the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns. The reason for an evaluation system is simple. The evaluation of training programmes is without a doubt the most important step in the training process. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer. There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program. * First, evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer’s performance, allowing them to improve themselves for future programs. Second, evaluations will indicate its cost-effectiveness. * Third, evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization. The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical. Without it, the trainer does not have a true indication of the effectiveness of the training. Consider this information the next time you need to evaluate your training program. The need for training your employees has never been greater.
As business and industry continues to grow, more jobs will become created and available. Customer demands, employee morale, employee productivity, and employee turnover as well as the current economic realities of a highly competitive workforce are just some of the reasons for establishing and implementing training in an organization. To be successful, all training must receive support from the top management as well as from the middle and supervisory levels of management. It is a team effort and must implement by all members of the organization to be fully successful.
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