Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Eastern Samara National Comprehensive High School Brogan City, Eastern Samara PET-Reordered CAB An Investigatory Protect Requirement for Research II Ralph Adrian T. Ramose Kiwanis M. Abundant Researchers Mrs.. Alexandra S. Parent Adviser Acknowledgment The researchers would like to extend their profound gratitude and appreciation to all who have contributed to the realization of this study. To Mrs.. Alexandra S. Parent, adviser in Research II, for her guidance, helpful recommendations and patience in the refinement of the search paper; To Mrs..
Teresa O. Assign for the the school Principal for the moral and financial support; To the DEPTH Quality Control Division through Eng. Stefan Classical, Mrs.. Leticia Celled and Mr.. Antonio Salsas, for sharing their engineering expertise and whole-hearted support and assistance during the Compressive Strength Test of the concrete hollow blocks; To their parents for their never-ending support and prayers for the success of their research work; and Above all, to the Lord Almighty, creator of everything, for the wisdom and talents He bestowed upon us.
We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!
Abstract This study develops and introduces a technology innovation to concrete hollow block (CAB) using shredded plastics from PET bottles, which deviates from its usual use as replacement or substitute to mined aggregates, to an additive serving as reinforcement material to improve its compressive strength. Six treatments with five replicates were prepared with the same 1 :2:4 mixture of cement, sand and pea gravel. Treatment 1 (T 1) had no added plastic serving as the control treatment.
The experimental treatments (TO-TO) were added with different amounts of shredded plastics. Compressive Strength Test for individual units was done after a 14-day curing period to all blocks using the Universal Testing Machine (TM) at the DEPTH, Brogan City, Eastern Samara. All treatments passed the allowable compressive strength set by ASTM CHIC for a non- load bearing CAB, with three experimental treatments, TO, TO and TO, registering higher average compressive strengths than the control treatment.
Statistical results show that all paired treatments, with the exceptions of Pair 3 (TTL-TO), and Pair 13 (TO-TO), have no significant differences in their average compressive strengths. With the right amount of added plastic, the compressive strength of the CAB is enhanced, thus it is concluded that plastic wastes from PET bottles is a viable reinforcement material in CAB.
However, it is recommended that further studies be conducted utilizing (a) additional treatments with different amounts of shredded plastic than what was utilized in the study; (b) treatments with different proportions of the CAB components; and (c) different types of plastic wastes with different curing periods to get a better comparative result and determine the amount and type of plastic that would yield the best product. Table of Contents Page Title Page I Acknowledgment iii Table of Contents . Iv Chapter I – Introduction Background of the Study . Statement of the Problem Hypothesis of the Study. 4 Significance of the Study . And Limitation 5 Chapter II – Review Related Literature Chapter Ill – Methodology . 11 Chapter IV – Results and Discussion 14 Chapter V – Conclusions and Recommendations ? 20 Appendices ? Chapter I Introduction 18 3 4 Scope 6 Literatures Cited Due to industrialization & rapid population growth, the demand for the supply of construction materials is very high as more houses, alluding, roads, bridges and other infrastructures are being built.
As the demand is high, prices of these materials is also high. This often results to the poor quality of construction materials like the concrete hollow block (CAB). Considering that the Philippines is prone to earthquakes, the quality of construction materials like CAB must not be compromised, hence, there is always a need to conduct studies to find a better yet cheaper way of making CAB. Using plastic wastes as reinforcement material to CAB is promising considering that plastic wastes are among the major pollutants of the environment.
And though many attempts are being made to address the pollution problem on plastic wastes such as reusing, recycling and proper waste disposal, these are not enough to combat the ever growing plastic wastes. Putting hygiene and health into consideration, reusing plastic wastes such PET bottles for its intended purpose, is not the best option. Recycling plastics also is a difficult, energy intensive process and yields a product that is inferior to the virgin material.
And with the scarcity of space for land filling and its ever increasing cost, proper waste disposal as a means to solve pollution also becomes another robber. Waste utilization, therefore, has become an attractive alternative to combat these problems. This means that wastes are reused for other purposes other than its original intended purpose. The use of plastic wastes in the production of CAB and other concrete products is not new. However, its use in previous studies is usually geared to replace or substitute one of the conventional aggregates in the CAB mixture.
Results of these studies show that the use of plastic fibers in concrete mixes, whether partially replacing a certain annuity or amount of sand or gravel, or totally substituting one of these aggregates, has been established to be a good innovation: wastes are utilized, mining conventional aggregates such as sand and pea gravel is lessened, concrete materials become lighter and less dense, and deformation qualities gained which is a characteristic useful in situations where concrete will be subjected to harsh weather, such as expansion or contraction, or freeze and thaw.
On top of these, the use of shredded plastic in the production of concrete is that plastic sates, especially PET, does not have to be purified, including removal of colors to the extent that other PET recycling applications might require (such as in the production of coats, pillows, carpets, etc. ). With all these benefits that plastic aggregates can do to concrete materials like the CAB, the researchers propose in this study to utilize plastic wastes not as replacement or substitute to mined aggregates but as an additive to reinforce the CAB.
Their reason for this is twofold. First, to replace a certain quantity of sand or gravel in the concrete suture, the volume of the plastic would be equal with that of the aggregate it has to substitute. If it is used to substitute pea gravel, more surface area needs cement considering the smaller dimensions of the shredded plastic. If used to substitute sand, it weakens the binding capacity of the entire product as it does not completely adhere to cement. In both cases, a greater amount of binder would be needed so as not to compromise the compressive strength of the CAB.
Since cement is high priced compared to sand and pea gravel, this would definitely increase the cost of production. Second, sand and gravel have certain properties and characteristics that are not inherent to plastics. These properties and characteristics are needed in the concrete mix to increase the binding capacity of the cement. By nature, sand and pea gravel may contain calcium or lime, clay, gypsum, silica and other minerals that have either binding properties or have high adherence to cement thereby making the CAB compact resulting to greater compressive strength.
These are reasons enough to make the researchers believe that sand and gravel are very important materials in the CAB hence they should not, totally or in great quantity, be placed or substituted by materials that do not contain their properties. Hence this study proposes to utilize plastic wastes only as an additive or reinforcement material to CAB and not to replace or substitute any of the conventional mined aggregates. Statement of the Problem The general objective of this study is to utilize shredded plastic wastes from PET bottles as reinforcement material in Concrete Hollow Block (CAB).
Specifically, it aims to: 1 . Determine the compressive strength of the CAB cured for 14 days using the following mixtures or treatments: Control Treatment: TTL – 1:2:4 (cement, sand and pea gravel) Experimental Treatments: TO – 1 (cement, sand and pea gravel) with gag plastics; TO – 1 (cement, sand and pea gravel) with gag plastics; TO- 1:2:4 (cement, sand and pea gravel) with gag plastics; TO – 1:2:4 (cement, sand and pea gravel) with gag plastics; and TO- 1 :2:4 (cement, sand and pea gravel) with gag plastics 2. Determine if there is significant difference in the average compressive strength between control-experimental treatments, and experimental-experimental treatments of the study; and, 3. Determine the amount of added plastic that would produce the best CAB in terms of average compressive strength and breakage control. Hypotheses of the Study Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is significant difference in the average compressive strength between control- experimental treatments and experimental- experimental treatments of the study as affected by the different amounts of added shredded plastic.
Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant difference in the average compressive strength among the different treatments of the study. Significance of the Study This study develops and introduces a technology innovation to CAB with shredded plastics as reinforcement material that would somehow improve its quality by helping bridge and control crack formations. Creating also a good quality of this construction material may offer an opportunity to earn from mass production as the addition of shredded plastics may add to the number of produced blocks and thereby cut its cost.
This may be another product that traders can engage in for a business. By utilizing discarded PET bottles, this study would also help address problems on pollution which endangers lives of people and other organisms since dirty environment increases risks for diseases and infections. Wastes therefore must be properly managed and disposed. By utilizing plastic wastes as component material in CAB, plastic wastes will be reduced thereby cutting down problems on pollution and waste disposal. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study utilized shredded plastic from PET bottles as reinforcement material in the production of CAB.
Six treatments with five replicates were prepared with the same 1 :2:4 mixture of cement, sand and pea gravel. Treatment 1 (T 1) served as the control treatment with no added plastic. The five experimental treatments (TO, TO, TO, TO, and TO) were added with different amounts of shredded plastic. Curing period of all CAB was limited to 14 days. Air curing was employed but the blocks was kept wet for 7 days and then allowed to dry at ambient temperature. Compressive Strength Test for individual units was done to all blocks using the Universal Testing Machine at the DEPTH, Brogan City, Eastern Samara.
The Paired-Sample T-test was employed to statistically analyze the data in determining significant differences in the compressive strength among the treatments. This study was conducted from July 16 to September 20, 2013 at the Eastern Samara National Comprehensive High School, Lang-Lang, Brogan City, Eastern Samara and at the Ramose residence, Baby 2, Brogan City, Eastern Samara. Chapter II Review of Related Literature Concrete and Its Uses Concrete is a mixture of sand, water and cement. For specific purposes, certain amount of gravel is also added.
Concrete is one of the most useful building materials. Millions of tons are used every year in all forms of construction works from laying paths in the garden to building skyscrapers, dams, bridges and roads. Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHUBS) are designed and made for use in all types of masonry constructions including extension load-bearing walls (below and above grade), interior load-bearing walls, firewalls, curtain walls, partition ND panel walls, piers and columns, chimneys, concrete floor units and others (Iffier, 1989).
CHUBS generally are not capable of carrying super imposed load. It has a tendency to crack and break upon repetitive handling and lifting due to poor and inadequate concrete mix and curing (Cooper,1992). Portland cement concrete is considered to be a relatively brittle material. When subjected to tensile stress, unrecorded concrete will crack and fail. When fiber reinforcing is added to the concrete mix, it can add to the tensile loading capacity of the composite system.
Research has shown that the ultimate strength of concrete can be increased as much as five times by adding fiber reinforcing (Brown, Shall, and Antiradar, 2002) Reinforcing fibers will stretch more than concrete under loading. Therefore, the composite system of fiber reinforced concrete is assumed to work as if it were unrecorded until it reaches its first crack strength. It is from this point that the fiber reinforcing takes over and holds the concrete together. Plastic and Its Properties Plastic are high polymers with carbon skeletons, each molecule being made up of thousands even millions of atoms.
They have a vast mange of useful properties, including hardness, elasticity, transparency, toughness, low density, insulating ability, inertness and corrosion resistance. A few natural plastics are known, e. G. , bitumen, resins and rubber, but almost are synthetic, made mainly from petrochemicals. (www. ]rank. Org/encyclopedia/pages/ coxcomb xii/Plastic). Utilization of Plastics in Concrete and Related Studies Efforts to find useful applications of plastic wastes are underway.
One of these applications is in highway construction wherein waste plastic bags are utilized in bituminous mix for improved performance of roads. It was found that the use of modified bitumen with the addition of processed plastics helps in substantially improving the stability or strength, fatigue life and other desirable properties of bituminous concrete mix, even under adverse water-logging conditions. Therefore, the life of the pavement surfacing course using the modified bitumen is also expected to increase substantially in comparison to the use of ordinary bitumen.
Oust, C. And Dry. A. Averaging, 2002). In a similar study conducted in Iran, researchers Hessian, Sanguineous and Nagasaki investigated the possibility of sing PET wastes in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. Their study focused on the parameters of Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. Results showed that the Plastics (the name of their product) material may be used cost effectively in pavements and as overlay on bridges. (Has’, A. Et al. , 2005). Another application of used plastics in concrete is in the production of Pals-Crete building blocks by Conciliator Industries, Inc. In Birmingham, Massachusetts, USA. The company, which is a materials recovery facility that recycles all plastics it brings into its plant, wanted to find a way to keep the numbers 3-7 plastics [PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), LDAP (Low Density Polyethylene), UP (Polypropylene), AS (Polystyrene) and others (Polycarbonate, Acrylic, Coordinately-Butadiene-styrene and mixed plastics) out of landfills.
Pals-Crete building blocks are precept concrete blocks using ground recycled plastics that replace the pea stone in the concrete mix. The blocks are lighter in eight and can be handled and transported easily. According to Mike Bowen, Pals-Crete System sales associate of Conciliator Industries, in the Pals-Crete mix which is a blend of virgin sand, ground plastic, water and Portland cement, the plastic does not completely adhere to the cement as stone does.
The result is a honeycomb effect which gives it the ability to expand and contract with the weather which should prevent the cracks and splits that regular concrete gets. (www. Unrealistically. Com/07/used. HTML) Karen Allen in her paper entitled Waste Management: Solid, Liquid, Hazardous, Bio-medical and Electronic Waste, PALS-CRETE: Manufacture of Construction Blocks with shredded PET and HIDE’, reports that in 2000, the Chelsea Centre for Recycling and Economic development (CUFFED), University of Massachusetts, carried out a research using discarded mixed plastics numbers 3-7 as aggregate in concrete blocks.
Their product which they also called ‘plasterer’ Just like that of the Conciliator Industries, is reported to have compressive strengths ranging from 230 SSI to 1700 SSI for ‘plasterer’ batches containing a range of sizes and types of waste plastic. These values indicated that plasterer can be used for ‘low density (I. E. Insulating) and ‘moderate-strength’ lightweight concrete’. (Allen, K. ). Another ingenious innovation to concrete was contributed by Henry Miller, RIP Masters of Architecture graduate from US.
He devised a way to reuse waste plastic as an aggregate in cement, circumventing the energy-intensive process of plastic recycling. By grinding up landfill-bound plastic and mixing it with Portland cement, Miller was able to create a material Just as strong as traditional concrete made with mined aggregate. He built a screen and a wall using his plastic concrete blocks which allegedly can withstand 3000 SSI to 5000 SSI.
Not only did he save the plastic from environmentally unfriendly alternatives (landfill or heat-related processing), he also avoided the use of mined gravel and sand thereby proving that the mining of new material to serve as aggregate is not necessary. The ingenious solution netted Miller first place in “Component Category’ of the second annual ‘Concrete Thinking for a Substance World competition’. (http://www. Counterstrike. Com/Thinker_Miller. Asps). In the name paper of Karen Allen, another study she cited was that of Shall and Gill, wherein plastic chips were used as partial replacement of coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures.
The testing program was organized to study the effect of adding plastic aggregates to the concrete in order to reduce the density and gain superior deformation qualities and to examine the effect of plastic content and water/cement ratio on the mechanical properties of concrete. Test results demonstrated that plastic aggregates are viable in providing the concrete with a high degree of deformational as compared with regular concrete. This characteristic makes the concrete useful in situations where it will be subjected to harsh weather, such as expansion or contraction, or freeze and thaw. Allen, K. ). In an article from Construction and Building Materials entitled ‘Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete Made with Recycled PET and Recycled Concrete Aggregates’ as cited by historiographers. Com, authors Bung-Wan Jog and company conducted a study to solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics and concrete demolition. They evaluated the mechanical properties of polymer concrete, in particular, polymer concrete made of unsaturated polyester resins from recycled Poly-Ethylene Ethereally (PET) plastic waste and recycled concrete aggregates.
Related essay samples:
- Workability For Concrete Specimens Finance Essay
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Plastic
- Conventional in situ construction
- Disadvtages of plastics
- The Sustainability Of Concrete Construction Essay
- Harmful Effects of Plastic Essay
- Bioplastic Properties of Agar-Agar and Potato Essay Sample
- Direct Material Price Variance and Lbs
- Application Of Nanotechnology In Civil Engineerings Engineering Essay
- Ancient Roman Architecture Report History Essay
- Utilization Of Used Plastic Cups Essay
- Cemex Case Study Analysis
- Setting and hardening of hydraulic cements Essay
- Construction of a Brick Wall in Laboratory Environment
- Pollution Observation Essay