AP biology FRQ Essay

A ) . The chemical composing and construction of proteins seems rather confounding at first but one it is broken down into degrees it is much more apprehensible. Amino acids are the basic edifice blocks of proteins and they contain aminic. carboxyl and R groups. These R groups that are in the amino acids are what find the belongingss of the specific amino acids. For construction. there are 4 degrees. The first one being the primary degree. These are made up of sequences of amino acids and these aminic acids are linked together by peptide bonds. The following degree is called secondary. This degree is a formation of amino acid ironss folded together by a spiral formation or a pleated sheet. The bonds between them are hydrogen bonds and they are specifically between carboxyl and amino groups. The 3rd degree is called third and is formed by several different bonds such as H. ionic. disulfide. new wave der waals. or hydrophobic reactions. These interactions occur between R groups. The 4th degree is called quaternate and it is made up of more than one polypeptide. It is made up of the same bonds that the third degree is because it is merely several third groups together.

B ) . Three types oh chemical bonds are covalent. H and ionic. Covalent bonds are bonds that portion negatrons or associate aminic acids together. The rode they play in finding protein construction is linking aminic acids to organize the right sequence. Hydrogen bonds are reactions between H and O or H and N and there function in finding protein construction is in the third or quaternate degrees. Last. ionic bonds are formed by the bonding of charged R groups. These are besides found in the third or quaternate degrees. C ) . Dehydration sysnthesis is when you take 2 aminic acids and take off the H from the amino and the Oh from the carboxyl and bond them together to do H2O ( H2O ) . You do this over and over until you get the coveted polypeptide concatenation you want. Hydrolysis is when you out the H2O back into the aminic acids so the H goes back into the amino and the OH goes back into the carboxyl to divide the amino acids into two.

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