Biology Questions

Why do you think stop and start codon signals are necessary for protein synthesis? These are necessary because start codons tells the tRNA to begin translating the codons into proteins and stop codons tell the tRNA to stop translating codons into proteins.

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They are essential in the process of producing proteins. 6. Describe the processes of transcription and translation in your own words, based on what you have observed in the Gizmo. Transcription: Protein synthesis process starts in the nucleus where DNA is found, which is a double chain of sugars and phosphates that are joined by pairs of nucleic acids. These are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.

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For replication, DNA is unzipped by the enzyme and it leaves a single nucleotide chain, which is then copied. RNA polymerase then reads the DNA strand and grabs a single stand of mRNA. This single strand leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm inside the ribosomes. Translation: tRNA brings the amino acid and anticodon which corresponds to the first (start) codon and to each codon. At the same time the ribosome moves down the mRNA strand. Then, the final mRNA codon (stop codon) is read and the amino acid chain is released creating a protein. Extension

What amino acids do the following codons code for?
AUG: Methionine (Start codon)
CUG: Leucine
ACC: Threonine
UAG: Stop codon
Apply: Suppose you wanted a protein that consists of the amino acid sequence methionine, asparagine, valine, and histidine. Give an mRNA sequence that would code for this protein. Methionine: AUG

Asparagine: AAC
Valine: GUC
Histidine: CAU

How do genes determine the traits of an organism? Explain in detail. Genes contain all the information of the DNA of an organism. Genes are fractions of a DNA which can be inherited in reproduction. New organisms share a group of genes which come from the parent gametes. All the inherited genes form a new DNA chain.

Genes determine all the physical details of an organism by carrying a set of codons that form part of a gene, which is part of a DNA double chain that contains the organism traits. Sometimes errors occur during transcription or translation. Examine the codon chart on the previous page. Notice that each amino acid is coded for by several different codons. For example, alanine is coded for by GCU, GCC, GCA and GCG. How might this offset transcription or translation errors?

This can offset errors by changing the amino acid sequence by one, none, and many or cut completely the bonding at some point at the beginning of the production of the protein synthesis. Consider the two following statements.

The theory of evolution states that all living things had a single common ancestor. The transcription between mRNA and amino acids is the same for all living things. (For example, the mRNA codon CAG codes for glutamine in all living things.) Does the second statement support the theory of evolution? Why or why not? The second statement surely supports the theory of evolution.

This is because it says that mRNA and amino acids are the same for all living things. Messenger RNA codons and amino acids are product of the copy of a single chain DNA. Evolution talks about a single common ancestor which in this case it is referring to the single chain that is then going to be duplicated. In other words, the second statement has the same meaning as the first statement but is giving a more specific idea. The transcription derives from the creation of the single bond chain which is the “ancestor” of all living things.

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