CYP Core 3. 1 3. Understand how to monitor children and young people’s development and interventions that should take place if this is not following the expected pattern. 3. 1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. In order to work effectively with children and young people, we must be able to assess their development and then plan to support them. Assessing children and young people has to be done sensitively and accurately. Before assessing children one should always gain permission from parents or those responsible for the child.
Observations of children should be stored carefully in order to maintain confidentiality. Sometimes it is not always possible to record observations as the child may be upset, therefore one should ask if he/she would like to leave an assessment for another day. It is important that one should assess children’s development reliably. Sometimes the behaviors, skills and interests that children show are dependent on their ethnic, cultural or linguistic background. E. g if a child who does not want to take part in the story of the 3 little pigs may not feel comfortable because he/she associates pigs with being unclean.
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If the child you are observing have disabilities or particular needs you have to take these into consideration when recording the assessment. ( http://www. paho. org/spanish/ad/fch/ca/si-childdevelopment. pdf ) It is important that when recording observations one should be accurate because inaccurate assessments can actually harm children’s development, especially if they lead to adults underestimating a child’s potential. Monitoring the development of children in their early years is of utmost importance, since this a crucial stage of life.
In order to ensure that a child attains his/her full development potential, it is essential to understand normal child development and the factors that can affect the process. For this reason, it is important for a child to be followed not only by family members but also professionals who know how to detect any alterations, so that he/she can be referred for treatment as early as possible. (P. Tassoni, 2010) Methods need to be used in order to assess children. This should be a holistic plan that encompasses several areas of development and so one will need to use methods that help gaining information about each of the ollowing areas : Physical, communication, intellectual/cognitive, social, emotional and behavioral. Ways of Recording information / Advantages & limitations of assessment methods MethodPurpose / Advantages & Limitations Free description (also known as narrative description and written record)To observe/record the behavior of a child over a very short period of time, often less than five minutes. The observer writes down what is happening at the moment of observation, which gives a portrait of a child’s activity during this time.
Observer can observe child without him/her being aware. observers may find it hard to record everything that a child does or says. Checklists and tick chartsUsed to assess children’s stages of development. This method is used by health visitors during routine check-ups. Specific activities are looked for, either during a structured assessment or by observing children over a period of time. Observer is clearly focused on developmental skills to be observed and so less danger of bias. Children might limit their performance if they realize they are being observed.
Time sampleThis method is used to record a child’s activity over a predetermined length of time, for example (morning time). A child is observed at regular intervals, say every 10 minutes and the observation is recorded on a prepared sheet. Observer can observe a child’s attitude, friendships and confidence. Event sampleLooks closely at one aspect of a child’s development or behaviour, such as how frequently the child bites his/her nails or shows aggression towards other children. Observer is focusing on the frequency of one type of behaviour.
This type of observation does not explain why the child shows the type of behaviour. Target childUsed to record one child’s activity over a long period without any gaps. This method gives you information about several areas of development. This method helps the observer gain an overall picture of what a child is doing but has to be careful to choose the correct time of observation. Filming, photographsIt is important to obtain permission from parents. This method provides information about several areas of development and one can play the video as many times as he wants so he can pick up on things that may have missed.
Child may be aware that he/she is being recorded and this may change his/her usual play and behaviour. Information from parents and colleaguesParents and colleagues may have different views of a child. Information from parents can be gained from questionnaires, face-to-face structured interviews or informal chats. Children’s growth and development, however, progress at different rates for each child, yet the developmental process remains consistent for normal, healthy children (Gullo, 1994).
Observation and assessment in child development support these emotional, social, physical, and cognitive developmental growth patterns. By their nature, observation and assessment — unobtrusive, on-going assessments within the context of the learning environment — document the varying rates of development. These assessments consider the child’s developmental stage and response characteristics. They provide the foundations for instructional decisions and inform parents and children of progress towards curriculum goals.
Development tests have different purposes depending on the age of the child and may be administered under a variety of circumstances. They are designed according to the expected skills of children at a specific age. The tests range from the passive evaluation of an infant to the complex testing of adolescents. Development testing begins at birth in order to identify any problems as early as possible and try to correct them. The testing of a newborn can be used to detect neurological problems such as cerebral palsy.
Testing continues with well-baby visits to the pediatrician. Many daycare centers and preschools use development tests. Most schools administer school readiness tests before admission. Development tests are also used to identify specific social or academic problems. Developmental assessments usually combine standardized tests and observations to cover all aspects of a child’s development, including the following: •motor skills •language development •mental development •social/emotional development •self-help skills, including dressing and toileting
The types of developmental assessment include: •developmental screening to identify children with special needs or who may be at risk for developmental delays or school difficulty •diagnostic evaluation, if indicated by the screening, to confirm the presence and extent of a disability •readiness tests to assess a child’s specific skills and information •observational and performance assessments to provide ongoing information about a child’s development Developmental screening tests usually are brief, general, play-based tests of skills.
Screenings include tests administered to the child by an educator or healthcare professional and questionnaires for parents or childcare providers that inquire about developmental milestones. Screening tests only try to identify children who may have one or more problems. A screening test is not a diagnosis. Rather it may indicate that a child should be referred for developmental assessment or evaluation. Developmental evaluations are lengthy, in-depth assessments of a child’s skills. They are administered by trained professionals.
They provide a profile of a child’s strengths and weaknesses in all developmental areas and may be used to determine if the child is in need of an early-intervention and/or treatment program. (http://www. healthofchildren. com/D/Development-Tests. html) Refernces: Tassoni Penny (2010). Children & Young People’s Workforce. Heinemann http://www. paho. org/spanish/ad/fch/ca/si-childdevelopment. pdf http://scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/public/etd-15516149741201/shj. pdf http://www. healthofchildren. com/D/Development-Tests. html
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