Electronic Games and Entertainment Essay

Equally early as 2600 BC. games are cosmopolitan portion of human experience and nowadays in all states as portion their civilizations. Games are normally for enjoyment. leisure. and sometimes used as educational tool. Cardinal constituents of games are ends. regulations. challenge. and interaction. Games by and large involve mental and physical stimulation. and frequently both. Games can take a assortment of signifiers. from competitory athleticss to board games and picture games. One of the celebrated board game is the Chess which is a head of game and scheme. The Royal Game of Ur. Senet. and Mancala are some of the oldest known board games ( “Game” . 2011 ) . In the Philippines. Filipinos have many traditional games. Games that normally play by kids normally utilizing native stuffs or instruments. Among these games are Patintero. Tumbang Preso. Syatong. Sipa. Turumpo. Chinese Garter. Luksong Tinik. Luksong Baka. and Sungka. Most of the games started in rural state at the bend of the twentieth century. and brought to the metropolis suburbs function in the early 1950’s. Traditional games had a socialising the Filipino community. Harmonizing to Armando Malay. one of the first Filipinos to document traditional in the state through his book Games of the Philippines. “Filipinos like to play games. one index to their sociableness.

Games bring members of the household together after their several jobs have been done in the vicinity ; they strengthen the ties that bind households. ” But traditional Filipino games are easy acquiring lost. As today’s childs are going more and more expert with engineering. disbursement more times with their electronic appliances and even acquiring their ain histories in societal networking sites. the less they are able to play out-of-doorss. But the popularity of many of the country’s traditional games has been decreasing even decennaries ago. In her book “A Study of Philippine Games. Mellie Leandicho Lopez has quoted E. Arsenio Manuel as repeatedly keening in his series on traditional games print in Sunday Mirror Magazine from 1960 to 1961 that “Philippine games are disappearing” ( Benosa. 2009 ) . One of the traditional Filipino games that are seldom played today is the game of Sungka. Sungka. one of the games popular non merely to childs but grownup every bit good Filipinos find it gratifying particularly in the rural countries to pass clip with. For every bit long as anyone can retrieve. there has ever been a Sungka board in the Filipino.

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Sungka is popular traditional board game in the Philippine discrepancy of a widely distributed household of board games called Mancala. Mancala is the name of a household of similar board games played on boards dwelling of rows of hollows or cups. into which seeds. shells. rocks or similar objects are sown. It is besides known as Count and Capture Game. It is one of the oldest board games in being and besides on of the most widespread games being found all over the universe. Mancala is known to day of the month back at least 1400 old ages before the birth of Christ. Most historiographers believe Mancala originated in ancient Egypt. Form Egypt. the game spread to the nearby countries of Africa and the Middle East with whom Egypt has trade dealingss. By 600 AD. Mancala began to distribute farther eastward into Asia. Mancala was small known in Europe until 19th century. And it was eventually introduced to the New World during the clip of the slave trade. The recorded history of Mancala in Southeast Asia goes back to the seventeenth century. The first written beginnings this clip provided plenty item to place it as a Mancala game.

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It is likely that Mancala games existed much earlier but the absence of regulations makes such suggestions merely bad. The outstanding characteristic of Mancala games in Southeast Asia is the inclusion of each player’s shop. which is enlarge hole at each of the board. among the holes in which counters are placed. Most variant of Mancala in Southeast Asia are played by two people merely. One peculiar set of regulations is shared by the participants in Indonesia and Malaysia the game is known as Congkak or Dakon. where it is played on two rows of three with up to two rows of nine or more holes with two holes with two shops at each terminal. The figure of holes per row varies from up to three up to nine or even more. In Maldives. the game is called Ohvalhu. which means “the game of eight hole” . Boardss with rows of six and ten holes are popular in the Maldives. And eventually. there is a game best known as Sungka in the Philippines that entirely played on two rows of seven ( Voogt. 2010 ) . Sungka was foremost described by the Jesuit priest Father Jose Sanchez in his lexicon of the Bisay linguistic communication ( Cebuano ) in 1692 as Kunggit.

Father Jose Sanchez who had arrived on the Philippines in 1643 wrote that at the game was played with seashells on a wooden. boat-like board. It was foremost described outside of Asia in 1894 by the American ethnologist Stewart Culin as Chuncajon ( “Sungka Wikimanqala” . 2011 ) . As for the beginning of the term ‘sungka’ . research workers found hints of a similar game at a watercourse in Indonesia. The watercourse. widely known to travellers as the Red River. is called sonka by early Asians. The theory maintains that the Sungka game Filipinos know today may hold been brought by Indonesians when they migrated to the Philippines ( “Sungka WikiPilipinas’ . 2010 ) . Sungka is so a Filipino mancala game. which is traditionally played on a block of woo or game-board called sungkahan ( As shown on Figure 1 ) .

Figure 1. 0: Sungka Board
The board is normally shaped like a boat and consists of two rows of 7 little holes called houses ( bahay ) . and extra big shop hole which known as caput ( ulo ) at either terminal of the board for the captured rocks or shells. A participant owns the shop hole to his left. Sungka is a game of accomplishment in computation played normally by adult females and kids. It is a two game. sit on the either side of the board across from each other. Ninety-eight shells or similar counters are used. Each fills the little holes with seven shells each. go forthing the caput empty. The end is to hive away as many shells as possible in their big shop holes.

In today’s modern engineering. many traditional board games are now available as computing machine games. which can include the computing machine itself as one of the participant R as exclusive opposition. Many games were developed and become electronic and computerized games. There are bing theories and surveies on how to develop computerized and electronic games. Specialists provide a computing machine plan that can work out the job of computerized and electronic games and they called it Artificial Intelligence Program ( Cruz et. Al. . 2011 ) . Artificial Intelligence is the subdivision of computing machine scientific discipline concerned with doing computing machines act in ways that resemble intelligent human behaviour ( Radlow. 1986 ) . In late 1955. Newell and Simon developed The Logic Theorist. considered by many to be the first AI plan. The possible applications of Artificial Intelligence are abundant. They stretch from the armed forces for independent control and mark designation. to the amusement industry for computing machine games and robotic pets. Game have played an of import function in Artificial intelligence because game playing is considered as typically intelligent undertaking. but besides because games ever form a closed environment with limited possibilities and clearly define regulations. The most celebrated consequence of AI in games is of class the fact that computing machines presents can play cheat at grandmaster degree.

In competitory race between computer-chess plans. many techniques have been developed that are now being applied on regular base in other countries of AI and computing machine scientific discipline. The household of Mancala games has been introduced in Artificial Intelligence comparatively early. although most research is restricted to merely two games: Kalah and Awari. The game of Kala is modern. commercial discrepancy of Mancala. It was introduced in the 1950s by a house called “The Kalah Game Company” owned by W. J. Champion. In 1960. a first computerized version of the game was created and many other followed. Kalah has been studied every bit early as 1964 by Richard Russel. He wrote a plan. called KALAH that really could play the game. In 1968. A. G. Bell wrote another plan that could larn in some manner from the mistakes. A twelvemonth subsequently. Slagle and Dixon ( 1969. 1970 ) used the game of Kalah to exemplify another algorithm for playing games. Using some of the advanced techniques that were developed for cheat. Irving. who is an undergraduate pupil at Caltech University. was able to happen the winning scheme for Kalah. The smaller cases of Kalah were solved by sing every possible place that really can originate during a game of Kalah.

Database were created in which every place and its game-theoretic value are stored. The larger cases of Kalah were solved by game tree hunt. For these cases. merely winning scheme from the gap place is known explicitly. The plan is nevertheless able to happen an optimum scheme for every place that can happen during a game of Kalah. The other mancala game that gained involvement from AI game research workers is Awari. This game is played in West Africa and the West Indies. The involvement in Awari started the AI community by the building of a plan called “OLITHIDION” and has been turning steadily since so. The game of Awari is the lone mancala gamed that is played on the computing machine Olympiad. This is an event in which all sort of computing machine plans compete in several classical game like Chess. Checkers. and Go. but besides in new and unreal games like Hex and Lines of Action.

The fact that a pupil has solved Kalah. several viing squads of AI research workers were still non able to work out Awari despite the serious attempts done in this way. In the competition for work outing Awari. one scheme of the take parting squads is build big end-game databases. These databases contain for a immense figure of board places how many counters can be captured and which move is the best to play. The squad of Lincke ( 2000 ) constructed the databases that contain all board places with 35 or less counters still in drama. It is certain that it is impossible to make a complete database with all possible places. The outlook is that shortly the game tree hunt from the get downing place and the end-game database will run into in the center ( Donkers et. Al. . n. d. ) . This survey is intended to plan and develop a Android Sungka game correlated with other mancala games. By accommodating traditional games into computerize version. the research workers can continue some of the country’s heritage and civilization while doing it interesting for the following coevals.

Significant of the Study

The important of the Android Sungka Game will profit the followers: To the Players. It help them to heighten their scheme and accomplishments and at same clip to bask the game. To the Public. The development of this game will enable the populace to be cognizant of the Filipino game of Sungka. To the Developers. It help them to plan and develop a plan like traditional game in relation to the survey of Artificial Intelligence. To the other Researcher. This survey will be a usher to the other research workers to a broader research about computing machine games in relation with Artificial Intelligence Program and will promote developing other computing machine games inspired by Filipino games.

Scope and Boundary line

The Android Sungka game limits itself as a single-player and dual-player game. For single-player game the computing machine ( which is the AI ) is the opposition of the participant while for the dual-player game it is Human VS Human. AI will decidedly prove the player’s accomplishments and scheme to win the game. Definition of Footings

Android – is a Linux-based Operating system designed chiefly for touchscreen nomadic such as smartphones and tablet computing machines. developed by Google in concurrence with the Open French telephone Alliance. Android Software Development kit ( SDK ) – includes a assortment of tools that help you to develop nomadic application for the Android platform. Eclipse – Does a Multi-language development environment comprise an integrated development environment ( IDE ) and an extensile circuit board System. It is written largely in Java. It can be used to develop applications in Java and. by agencies of assorted plug-in. other scheduling linguistic communications. Java Development kit ( JDK ) – is an Oracle Corporation merchandise aimed at Java developers. Since the debut of Java. it has been by far the most widely used Java Software Development kit ( SDK ) . Emulator – is a package application that can accurately copy another computing machine. nomadic phones. device or even arcade machine and run package from that computing machine.

SDK Manager – the Android SDK separate tools. platform. and other constituents into bundles you can download utilizing the SDK Manager. Android Virtual Device ( AVD ) – is used to configure Android’s copycat to unnaturally stand for an existent Mobile device. An AVD modelled to the specification of a existent nomadic device enables developers to prove their humanoid applications for that device. AVD Manager – The AVD Manager provides a graphical User interface in which you can make and pull off Android Virtual Devices ( AVDs ) . which are required by the Android Emulator.

Dalvik – is the procedure practical machine ( VM ) in Google’s Android runing system. It is the package that runs the applications on Android devices.

Aim of the Study

The chief end of this survey is to develop an Android Sungka Game. Specifically. the survey has the undermentioned aims:

Chapter 2


This chapter presents a reappraisal of related literature that read by the research workers which served as footing is making their survey. Furthermore. the literature reappraisal helped the research workers in the development of the present undertaking. Related Literature

Android among Smartphone’s
Android among Smartphone was chosen as the mark platform of our application. we devoted this chapter to demo its topographic point among competition. and possibly reflect a visible radiation on why we chose it. Early Old ages of Smartphone

The Smartphone industry started with the Symbian operating system. Palm. windows Smartphone and Blackberry. These devises were the first to be called Smartphones and truly so. They provided larger than usual screens. frequently stylus-controlled touch screens. were able to utilize electronic mail and could even shop the web in a limited manner. Then came the Apple iphone. The iPhone brought a few cardinal betterments that made it a hit. First and foremost it. which used capacitive touch screen. a touch screen controlled by a finger. which the frequently and uncomfortable stylus. The whole interface was designed to be easy controlled by human finger. doing it the attractive to the clients. Its show even supported multi-touch. a great when zooming and voyaging web pages for case. On that note another key betterment was the web browser. by ArsTechnica so described as “far superior to anything that we had of all time used prior. ” And last but non least the iPhone applications that became a immense success. good for all parties. bring forthing gross for Apple. linking developers to clients and conveying great sums of apps for Users. It started s development roar for the plat-form which ended in 100s of 1000s of applications.

Android: The Beginning

Android is a consequence of increasing demands on smartphones. in the early old ages of smartphones. apart from Windows Mobile and partly Symbian. each maker had its properness operating system developed for their ain devices. The Android came because of two grounds: 1. the of all time increasing demand for smartphones. and because if there exists incorporate system used by many makers. both the makers and the clients benefit. Manufacturers don’t have to pass resources on developing high-end system. in the instance of Android they don’t have spent any resources at all since it’s free. and clients benefit from increased sum of applications since developers don’t have to port apps to each of the many platforms.

Android started as a startup company in Palo Alto. California. the place of birth of many computing machine revolutions. Development started in 2003 and by 2005 Google bought the undertaking and accelerated its gait. Android is powered by Linux Kernel. In 2007 the freshly formed Open Handset Alliance. a pool of powerful communications companies. aimed at developing unfastened criterions for nomadic devices. was unveiled. On the same twenty-four hours they introduced their first merchandise. Android. Android 1. 0 was released in September 2008.

Related Surveies

Software designed to back up immature people’s larning frequently borrows from game design in an effort to retroflex the degrees of battle and harness this to ease more traditional acquisition. These efforts are non ever successful and the consequences do non ever convert a discerning gamer.

Nowadays. the most popular and utile types of cognitive games used for instruction in natural scientific disciplines are quizzes. mystifiers and job work outing games. Game types such as word. logic. board or problem-oriented games may use semantically organized class content for dynamic exaction of footings. constructs. and semantic relationships such as sub-typing. association. collection. instantiation and dependence.

This survey is intended to come up with a game design that can be integrated with relevant larning techniques in educational games that are both prosecuting and educative.
Research into the usage of mainstream games in instruction is comparatively fresh. ut turning quickly. Research is chiefly concerned with the development of related competencies and illiteracies during game drama. or the function of games in the formation of larning communities either while bet oning or related to game drama.

Significantly the experience of game drama seems to be impacting learners’ outlooks of larning activities. Preferred undertakings are fast. active and explorative. with information supplied in multiple signifiers in analogue. Traditional school-based acquisition may non run into these demands

Compared to ours the survey relates on some facets of their developed undertaking like its construct where you can reply the inquiry with a running clip. As to developing our game. we had searched and found some surveies that could assist us do our undertaking more interesting.

The difference with our undertaking compared to some games is that ours is concern with the amusement. chance and the challenge factor.

Conceptual Model

Mechanicss. Dynamicss and Aestheticss
Games are created by designers/teams of developers. and consumed by participants. They are purchased. used and finally project away like most other consumable goods. Game design and writing happen at many degrees. and the Fieldss of games researcher and development involve people from diverse originative and scholarly backgrounds. While it’s frequently necessary to concentrate on one country. everyone. regardless of subject. will at some point need to see issues outside that country: base mechanisms of game systems. the overarching design ends. or the coveted experiential consequences of game drama.

Chapter 3


This chapter discusses the package development methodological analysis. range and boundary line. informations assemblage. techniques. informations garnering instrument and beginning of informations usage in the survey. This will assist the research workers on carry oning the survey consistently to accomplish the study’s aims.

Software Development Methodology

The package development methodological analysis usage to develop the Android Sungka Games is Prototyping. Since. android games like the Sungka game requires patterning and proving in its development. Prototyping is a procedure in which a paradigm ( theoretical account ) is built. tested. and so make over as necessary until an acceptable paradigm is eventually achieve.

Prototyping has several advantages. including decrease of undertaking hazard and costs. by interrupting a undertaking into smaller sections and supplying more ease-of-change during the development procedure. It besides requires user to see and interact with a paradigm leting them to supply better and more complete feedback and specifications. The iterative model and trial-and-error procedure of prototyping is apply to plan and develop the Android Sungka Game.

The prototyping has the undermentioned stages:
Planing. This stage intends to place the undertaking ends. Precise undertaking jobs and range of needed solutions are identify. All of the package merchandise demands to be develop during demands definition phase flow from one or more of these ends. In this stage. the research worker has set the undertaking ends: to use the most basic regulations of the traditional game of sungka to the android sungka game: to add some characteristics to the game like holding an AI opposition. The research workers aim to develop the game utilizing Eclipse scheduling linguistic communication. Requirements Gathering and Analysis. Determine basic demands including the input and end product information desired. Requirements are a description of how a system should act on a description of system belongingss. Required informations about the traditional game of sungka are gathered and analyze in this stage. The research workers fundamentally acquired information about the game. its beginning. how it is play manually. Besides. inquire some people particularly those who know the game. about the regulations and techniques. The research workers learn to play the game manually to cognize some cases in the game. Some computing machine games characteristics are studied to be able to use on the computerized sungka game.

Preliminary design is creates specifying the architecture. constituents. faculties. interfaces. and informations for the system to fulfill specific demands. The aim of this stage is to plan the solution. defined during the analysis stage. After all the demands assemblage and analysis. the research workers design a simple illustration of the game. basic interface and design of the board is created. As shown in Figure B. 4 of Appendix B. Code coevals. The design is now translated into a machine-readable signifier. The codification coevals measure performs this undertaking. Detailed design could decrease the complication of the codification coevals procedure. Visual Basic 6. 0 is the programming linguistic communication used. Testing. After codification coevals the package program-testing Begins. This will prove if the plan is ready for usage. If other alterations are needed the developer will undergo rework. Implemention. If all alteration are satisfied the plan is now ready to utilize. Maintenance. The package will certainly undergo alterations ; these alterations could straight impact the package operations. Everyday care is carry out on a go oning footing in order to keep good status.

Data Gathering Techniques

The instrument usage to garner the most indispensable informations and information in this survey is research. Research is a systematic survey or probe in a field of cognition to detect or set up facts or rules. The development procedure involved the followers: survey of the bing board game and how to play the game. The research workers examined if the bing manual board game can be computerize and technically possible. The research workers gathered the bing board game’s mechanism including articles related to this survey.

Data Gathering Instruments

The research workers used internet research and books from the Library for roll uping informations and information needed in the development of the survey. Internet Research
The cyberspace was the chiefly tool used for the aggregation of informations and utile information with respects on the development of the survey specially the history of Sungka game which is a traditional game found in the Philippines. The research workers downloaded of import articles sing Sungka game regulations to achieve the of import information needed. Library Research

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