Explain common services for computer programs. Time-sharing

Explain the purposes of different systems software

Operating Systems An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,12 although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers.

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Utility Programs
Utility software is designed to help configure, maintain and help our computers to run smoothly, it’s a type of software used to support the computer infrastructure unlike application software which is used to benefit computer users to perform tasks.

Types of Utilities
Anti-virus utility
Virus scans will protect you from viruses which have different impacts on your devices. Malware can damage or corrupt your systems at a financial or reputational cost depending on what attack occurs. Programs or folders could be deleted or personal and financial details stolen, all of which can be significantly reduced by installing and running an anti-virus program.

Maintenance software
Disk Fragmentation causes slowdowns in the functions of your operating system, defragmenting your hard drive will help programs run more efficiently as data is grouped together for easier access also enabling anti-virus to scan your hard drives quicker.
Disk checkers scan an operating hard drive and check for logical (filesystem) or physical errors.
Disk cleaners help the users decide what to delete when hard drive is full by finding files that are unnecessary for the computer operations and taking up a lot of space on your hard drive.
Disk compression help increase the disk capacity by compressing the contents of the disk or disks.
Registry cleaners clean and optimize the Windows Registry by removing old registry keys that are no longer in use.

File synchronization software utility can be used to create backup copies and help to carry your multimedia on other mobile devices by maintaining consistency between two sources.
• Backup software makes copies of all information stored on a disk and restore either the entire disk (e.g. in an event of disk failure) or selected files (e.g. in an event of accidental deletion).
• File synchronization utilities maintain consistency between two sources. They may be used to create redundancy or backup copies but are also used to help users carry their digital music, photos and video in their mobile devices.
• Debuggers are used to test and “debug” other programs, mainly to solve programming errors. They are also utilized for reverse engineering of software or systems.
• Disk partition editors divide an individual drive into multiple logical drives, each with its own file system which can be mounted by the operating system and treated as an individual drive.
• File manager provide a convenient method of performing routine data management, email recovery and management tasks, such as deleting, renaming, cataloguing, un cataloguing, moving, copying, merging, generating and modifying folders and data sets.
• Memory testers check for memory failures.
• Network utilities analyse the computer’s network connectivity, configure network settings, check data transfer or log events.
• System monitors monitor resources and performance in a computer system.
• System profilers provide detailed information about the software installed and hardware attached to the computer.

Library Programs
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often to develop software. These may include configuration data, documentation, help data, message templates, pre-written code and subroutines, classes, values or type specifications.

Most compiled languages have a standard library although Programmers can create custom libraries that they can call their own, although most compiled languages have a standard library. It will be likely that modern software systems will provide libraries that implement the system services.

Translator Software

There are many different types of software for translation on the marketplace. Here is a description of some of the most common translation technologies available. You will find that many translation tools, such as SDL Trados Studio, will contain all the types of technology listed below:
Translation memory
A linguistic database that captures your translations (as source and target sentences called ‘translation units’) as you work for future re-use.
Benefits include: Faster translations – never translate the same sentence twice.
Terminology management
A searchable database that stores terms (e.g. product specific terminology) and rules regarding their usage (e.g. gender or description).
Benefits include: Higher translation quality – always use the right word.
Machine translation (also known as automated translation)
Translation carried out by a machine, with no human involvement. These systems can be rules-based or statistical.
Benefits include: Can be integrated into your translation environment (e.g. in SDL Trados Studio) – deliver new content faster.
Software localization
Tools, such as SDL Passolo, help to localize all elements contained in the software, including strings, menus dialogs and icons.
Benefits include: Speeds up many of the technical aspects of software localization – translate new types of content.
A compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a certain programming language (known as the source language) into another computer language (known as the target language), To be able to transform source code to create an executable program. The name “compiler” is used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to lower level languages. If compiled programs can run on computers whose CPUs or O/Ss are different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is known as a cross compiler. A program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompile.
A compiler is likely to perform many or all the following operations:
• lexical analysis
• pre-processing
• parsing
• semantic analysis (Syntax directed translation)
• code generation
• code optimization.
A language rewriter is known as a program that can change the form of expressions without changing the language, while a program that translates between high level languages is usually known as language translator or source translator.

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