1. an explanation of partnership model of working with carers
2. a reviev of potential berriers to participation for carers, and an explanation of how these barriers may be overcome
3. an explanation of how effective multi-agency working operates within early years provision an benefits children and carers
4. am explanation of strategies that can be used to support carers who may react possitively or negatively to partnership opportunities.

All families are unique, but sociologists have noted that the way parents interact with their children has been influenced by their culture, class and ethnic group, and the experience of their own childhood. The birth order, temperament and personality of each child will cause parents to handel each child differently. All parents have their own ideas to raise children, and their ways may be very different from the way I was brought up and how I care children. How parents communicate with, relate to and discipline their children show their ability and willingneess to use their authority as parents. I need to understand about the various parenting styles.
Parents spend more time with their children than any professional carer and will know their childs strengths and weaknesses, anticipate her needs, and have made many decision about their child long before the child starts any educational or care programme. Therefore, it is sensible to work with the parents in all aspects of decision making for the benefit of the child. It will also add to the security of the child to see parents and professional working together, and in regular consultation.
Partnership means:
5. sharing skills
6. shared understanding of childrens needs
7. accountability
8. consistent approach to care and education
9. common aims and sense of purpose
10. discussion
11. negotiation.
Partnership model of working with carers is about how I work with parents/carers to make sure their children are well and happy. My success as a childminder depends to a great extent on the quality of the relationship I have with parents. It is not just about making sure the arrangements are right, althought thats important. It is also about how I develop a trusting and equal partnership with parents, with the interests of their child at the heart of it. Thats means I need be good at communicating with adults as well as with children.
To have good relationship I:
12. respect all parents as individuals, and I learn from them different ways of child-rearing. Their practice may be different from my, but is not less vailid. I am open to a variety of opinions.
13. respect parents values, practices and preferences,
14. provide a welcoming and relaxed atmosphere in my home, encouraging parents to settle their children in and to spend time whenever they wish,
15. avoid patronising parents. Remember they are expert on their own individual children,
16. try to communicate, at the end of the day, the important aspects of the childs day, sharing negative and positive situations alike,
17. be professional at all times. Never gossip about parents to other parents. Refuse to listen to other peoples unsubstantiated hearsay,
18. offer reassurance and encouragement to parents, always emphasising the central role that they play in their childrens lives,
19. be clear about services I am offering. The more time I spend in discussion with the parents prior to accepting the child, the less likely it is that there will be problems.
20. Benefits of positive relationship:
21. skills and ideas can be shared
22. childrens welfare can be properly monitored
23. information can be shared quickly between adults
24. plans for childrens care and education are more effective
25. childrens needs and interests are identified
26. children are given consistent care.

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Communication is not always straightforward. The way in which we communicate people should not be static. It is important that we adjust our style to meet the needs of both the situation and person with whom we need to communicate. We need to be a good observer of other adults to find out any communitaction difficulties, reflect on our practice to choose the best method of communication with such an adult. Being sensitive to potential difficulties in communicating is essential. There are many reasons why communication may be problematic.
27. Time:
Parents/carers do not have enought time to process information or respond, it can make them feel unimportant. As childminder I use to daily communication a notebook (there is wrriting raport about childs day – activities, outgoing, sleep and food also about behavior and feeling), also I use e-mail, phon and messages. I talk with parents ( if they have time) when they drop off and pick up child.
28. Literacy:
Parents/carers do not have English as first language ( they do not speak English fluent or do not speak a bit of English). This may mean I need to use pictures, photographs, body language, facial expression or, if necessary ,looking for another adult who might be able to translate for us.
Parents/carers are not comfortable with the written words also some adults may have difficulty with reading and writing. They can have also hearing difficulties. This may mean to maintain face-to-face contact.
29. Culture and famili background:
Culture and famili background affect the way parents/carers use the methods of communitacation. This may mean I need to find more about this culture and rules, and style of comunication.
30. ICT knowledge:
Parents/carers may not feel comfortable with media. This may mean to maintain face-to-face contact.
31. Personality:
Parents/carers personalities can affect the style in which they communicate. Recognising the personaliti is important as some adults may not enjoy talking in a grup or communicating with unfamiliar person. This may mean I need to use a formal way of presenting information, use phon if somone is not available to speak face-to-face or writte letter, e-mail to send information.

We need to be aware that differences in communication styles can sometimes lead to misunderstandings. People usisng a language that is not their native language may not always understand the effect that their words are having.
Most practitioners will readily accept that all children are unique and different, but sometimes they expect all adults to have the same views and outlook as themselves. This may cause conflict.
This is hardly the case, and we need to be ready to respect adults who have a different opinion or have a very different lifestyle. When we are able to do this, everyone benefits. Parents may feel able to talk to us more freely, while we may learn from colleagues who see things from a different perspective. Respecting other adults also means finding out more. The key to this ia a clear communication style.
It is also a good idea to avoid jumping to conclusions or making assumptions. Checking on others views is therefore essential. It would be only proper to check, for example, whether a colleague is happy to cover for us, rather than assuing it.
Sometimes conflicts occur because a person is coping with other, unrelated pressures. We may not know about these and the danger is that we might assume that the negativity is personally aimed at us. Observing other people as they talk to us can sometimes give us an indication of whether there are other factors at work.
Some conflicts are the result of people not feeling confident in a situation. They may worry that someone might do a better job or know more than them. This can result in them lashing out or being obstructive. Dealing with this is hard, but it is important to look for ways in which we can acknowledge the other persons skills and expertise. If we feel angry or irritated by someone else, it is also worth reflecting on exacly why it is we feel that way.

Dealing with conflict.
32. Avoid personalising it (e.g. in the comments that are made) or gossiping about it, which can lead to it becoming more heated and intense.
33. We can offen take the heat out of conflicts by acknowledging anothers point of view: I can see what you mean, but I cant agree to differ.
34. Sometimes it is necessary simply to agree to differ.
35. Some conflicts are merely the result of miscommunication. A person may take a comment the wrong way, not understand the context or may not have had the message properly passes on. Poor communication can dealt with by writing things down or by simply checking again with somone.
36. It is always worth beginning by listening to someone we have conflict with know what they fell their problem is. Acknowledging and showing that we are listening often prevents misunderstandings from deepening.
37. Simply being sympathetic and a good listener can sometimes take the heat out of a conflict and also help the other person to calm down.
38. Use expressions that invite others to put forward their views (e.g. I was thinking about doing this, but I wondered what your thoughts were).
39. Use I statements – this means stating what we think, know or believe in such a way we own the statement. I am happy to take child to the doctor on Monday is fairly clear to others, while If you want, I can take child to the doctor is not as clear or as positive.

When we are involved in a conflict ( or are worried about the potential for one) it is worth reflecting on why it has arisen (or may arise).

Multi-agency working brings together practitioners from different sectors and professions to provide an integrated way of working to support children, young people and families. Multi-agency working could involve anyone whose job or voluntary work puts them in contact with children, young people and their families. It is important each practitioner brings with them their own specialist skills, expertise and insight so that the child, young person and family gets the best support possible.
Professionals who may work together to support the child:
40. parents/carers
41. health visitors/workers (e.g. speech and language therapist)
42. monitoring grups
43. mentors
44. educational psychologists
45. representatives from voluntary organisations
46. play specialists
47. social workers
48. advisers
49. colleagues from other early years settings.

Different models of multi-agency working.
There is no one, correct way of multi-agency working. However, a review of practice shows that it is possible to group multi-agency working into three very broad models. These are intended to assist local areas in thinking through the different structures and issues, but there are no hard and fast rules about how multi-agency services should be set up:
1. Multi-agency panel
??? Practitioners remain employed by their home agency.
??? They meet as a panel or network on a regular basis to discuss children with additional needs who would benefit from multi-agency input.
??? In some panels, case work is carried out by panel members. Other panels take a more strategic role, employing key workers to lead on case work.
An example of this type of working arrangement is a Youth Inclusion and Support Panel.
2. Multi-agency team
??? A more formal configuration than a panel, with practitioners seconded or recruited into the team.
??? Team has a leader and works to a common purpose and common goals.
??? Practitioners may maintain links with their home agencies through supervision and training.
??? Scope to engage in work with universal services and at a range of levels ??“ not just with individual children and young people, but also small group, family and whole school work.
Examples include Behaviour & Education Support Teams and Youth Offending Teams.
3. Integrated service
??? A range of separate services share a common location, and work together.
??? A visible service hub for the community.
??? Has a management structure that facilitates integrated working.
??? Commitment by partner providers to fund/facilitate integrated service delivery.
??? Usually delivered from school/early years settings.
Examples include Sure Start children??™s centres and extended schools that offer access to a range of integrated, multi-agency services.

Multi-agency working provides benefits for children, young people and families because they receive tailor-made support in the most efficient way. The benefits of this include:
50. access to services not previously available, and a wider range of services
51. early identification and intervention of a child or young persons needs
52. easier or quicker access to services or expertise
53. improved achievement in education and better engagement in education
54. better support for parents
55. children, young people and family??™s needs addressed more appropriately
56. better quality services
57. reduced need for more specialist services.

The five outcomes of Every Child Matters state that we should be working together to achive the best possible outcomes for the children in our care starting in the early years. These outcomes are:
58. be healthy
59. stay safe
60. enjoy and achieve
61. make a positive contribiution
62. achieve economic well-being.
The Early Years Foundation Stage is clear that different proffessionals working together will help to improve outcomes for children in both their learning and development.

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