Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Essay

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was created by the Banking Act of 1933 in response to the banking crisis that faced the state after the stock market clang on Black Tuesday. October 29. 1929. Although the FDIC has grown and changed since so. its intent is still the same – to vouch the safety of bank sedimentations up to a certain sum. Until late. that sum was $ 100. 000 but Congress. in response to the current economic crisis has temporarily increased FDIC sedimentation insurance from $ 100. 000 to $ 250. 000 per depositor through December 31. 2009. ( Who. n. d. )

All of the Bankss that are members of the FDIC must adhere to certain liquidness and modesty demands in order for the Bankss and their depositors to profit from the insurance. ( Overview. n. d. ) If a bank becomes undercapitalized the FDIC issues a warning. If the undercapitalization worsens it can take other disciplinary steps which may finally ensue in the FDIC pickings over direction. All of this is meant to prolong the assurance of depositors so that there are no tallies on the Bankss as so frequently happened in past history.

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The History of the FDIC

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To understand the importance of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in today’s economic market one must look to the history that led up to its constitution as portion of the Banking Act of 1933. After the clang of the stock market in 1929 the United States fell into the longest economic depression in its history – from 1929 to 1939. Since loans that were made to stock market speculators were non being repaid after the clang. many Bankss failed and bank terrors were platitude. This led to their depositors’ losing money. which merely served to fuel the depression farther.

The bank failures of the early 1930s were non the first in the history of the United States. but they were the most terrible to day of the month. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt saw the demand to stem the tide of failures by ordaining the Banking Act of 1933. Part of this act established the FDIC. gave it authorization to modulate and insure Bankss. and the act besides provided its support.

The intent of the FDIC was to construct the assurance of the American people in their Bankss and to guarantee them that their financess would be safe. at least up to a certain sum. ( FDIC Timeline. n. d. . 1930 ) This is still the general intent of the FDIC. although much has changed since its birth in 1933. Harmonizing to the FDIC web site “since the start of FDIC insurance on January 1. 1934. no depositor has lost a individual cent of insured financess as a consequence of a failure. ” ( Who. n. d. )

When the FDIC was established in 1933 it was a impermanent bureau. But merely two old ages subsequently the Banking Act of 1935 made it a lasting bureau. ( FDIC Timeline. n. d. . 1930 ) This was the first of many alterations and accommodations to the FDIC over the old ages. The Federal Deposit Insurance Act of 1950 raised the insured sum to $ 10. 000 and that sum has increased steadily until now. it is $ 250. 000. The 1950 statute law besides gave the FDIC “the authorization to impart to any insured bank in danger of shutting if the operation of the bank is indispensable to the local community. and authorized the FDIC to analyze national and province member Bankss for their insurance hazard. ” ( Important. n. d. )

In 1989. in response to the nest eggs and loan crisis gripping the state. the Financial Institutions Reform. Recovery and Enforcement Act ( FIRREA ) added two more maps to the FDIC. extinguishing the Federal Savings & A ; Loan Insurance Corporation ( FSLIC ) . The FDIC was given the authorization to supervise and administrate two other insurance financess that replaced the FSLIC – the Savings Association Insurance Fund ( SAIF ) and the Bank Insurance Fund ( BIF ) . ( FDIC. n. d. )

Still more powers were given to the FDIC by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act ( FDICIA ) of 1991. This act addressed issues that the FIRREA did non. giving the FDIC more authorization every bit good as more duties. The FDIC continued to turn both in support and authorization until it reached the position that it holds in our economic system today.

The Structure of the FDIC

The FDIC of today is run by a five-member board of managers headed up by Chairman of the Board. Sheila C. Bair who has been in that station since she was sworn in on June 26. 2006. She will function a five twelvemonth term and at the termination of that term. she will stay on the Board of Directors until 2013. Each Chairman of the Board is appointed by the President to function a five-year term and each assignment is capable to the blessing of the US Senate. ( Barrymore. n. d. ) Since the president is appointed by the President. she can besides be removed by the President.

The other members of the Board are the Vice Chairman Martin J. Gruenberg. Director Thomas J. Curry. Comptroller of the Currency John C. Dugan. and Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision John M. Reich. ( Board. n. d. ) The Board meets approximately one time a month in either unfastened or closed meetings. The populace may go to unfastened meetings as a consequence of the Government in the Sunshine Act. ( FDIC Board Meetings. n. d. ) In 2008 there were 10 unfastened meetings held.

The FDIC has seven divisions. The Division of Finance directs the accounting and auditing facets ; the Division of Information Technology oversees and maintains the computing machine web of the organisation ; the Division of Administration provides administrative support ; the Division of Supervision and Consumer Protection conducts reappraisals to guarantee that each bank is sound and that its internal controls are equal ; the Division of Resolutions and Receiverships goes into action when a bank is in danger of neglecting ; the Legal Division handles the corporations judicial proceeding ; and the Division of Insurance and Research keeps an oculus on the economic wellness of the state. analyzing concern activity. markets. etc. ( FDIC Divisions. n. d. )

To run these seven divisions the FDIC employs about 5. 000 people in its Washington. D. C. central office every bit good as in six regional offices and in field offices around the state. ( Who. n. d. )

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