The 4G architecture that supports flawless mobility between typical entree engineerings has an IPv6 based web architecture. Handovers between inter-technology demand to be supported else mobility issues will originate. IP web architecture eliminates the voice-centric construction from the web. Alternatively of package informations covering on voice web separate, instead simple informations architecture can be implemented which eliminates multiple elements from the web. BSC maps are every bit distributed among media gateway router and BS over WAN. These include Radio Bearer control, dynamic allotments and radio resource direction that are handled by base Stationss whereas gateway router grips distribution of paging messages and security.
Figure 7: IP-Based Network Architecture [ 6 ] .
Ethernet- 802.3 is used for grant wired entree and Ethernet -802.11 is used for LAN entree. The wireless interface W-CDMA of UMTS is used extensively for cellular entree. This arises the demand for mobility to be implemented in the web bed as it ca n’t be handled by the lower beds. IPv6 mechanism is used for internetworking extinguishing the demand to utilize internal process for handover over any engineering. This clarifies that no internal processs are sustained in W-CDMA cells but the same IP protocol facilitates the motion among the cells.
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The figure above illustrates a few handover potency in such a web to suit a traveling user. The users can handover among any of theses engineerings without dividing the web connexion every bit good as back uping voice connexions. The users have the chance to roll between administrative spheres while holding the capableness to utilize their services across spheres. There should be appropriate understandings among the bing spheres. The service suppliers have the capableness to track the use of their consumers both on and off their web like while rolling.
The full web inclusive of all direction maps and applications was being employed with the IPv6 protocol over the Linux environment. AAAC and QoS subsystems were responsible for supplying service to each user harmonizing to the SLA ( Service Level Agreement ) . The package for these was extended resorting to a combination of bing executions and freshly included faculties.
The 4 administrative spheres are depicted in the figure with assorted entree engineerings. An AAAC ( Authentication, Authorization, Auditing and Charging ) system manages each administrative sphere. “ At least one web entree control entity, the QoS Broker, is required per sphere. Due to the demands of full service control by the supplier, all the handovers are explicitly handled by the direction substructure through IP-based protocols, even when they are intra- engineering, such as between two different Access Points in 802.11, or between two different Radio Network Controllers in WCDMA ” [ 7 ] . The web suppliers are responsible for all the web resources while the user command their local web, applications and terminus.
The cardinal features of this web architecture are:
A User: It refers to a company or a individual with SLA constricted with a supplier for certain set of services. The architecture is concerned about allowing entree to the users and non specific terminuss.
MT ( Mobile Terminal ) : It is the terminus that gives entree to the users for services. The web architecture can back up terminal portability taking to the sharing of the terminus among assorted users though non at the same clip.
AR ( Access Router ) : This is the generic manner of connexion to the web that gets the name of RG ( Radio Gateway ) for fundamentally wireless entree.
PA ( Paging Agent ) : it is responsible for locating MT when it is idle and there are packages that need to be delivered to it.
QoS Agent: it is entirely responsible for pull offing one or more AR ‘s. the AAAC system provides information that is used to command user entree and entree rights.
AAAC System: It is responsible for SLA including bear downing and accounting.
NMS ( Network Management System ) : It is responsible for overall web control and direction. This entity warrants and manages the handiness of resources in the chief web.
This web is proficient of back uping several maps viz. :
Confidentiality both of user traffic and of the web control information
QoS degrees guarantees to traffic flows
Inter-operator information interchange for multiple-operator scenarios
Mobility of terminuss across multiple engineerings
Mobility of users across multiple terminuss
IMT-Advanced Network Architecture
The ITU specified IMT-Advanced ( International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced ) specifications for 4G criterions. The information rate demands for 4G service was set at 100 Mbps for high-ranking mobility communicating and 1 Gbps for low-level mobility communicating. Pre-4G engineerings such as WiMAX and LTE have been in the market for a piece. The most current version of these engineerings do non carry through the ITU demands for 4G service. IMT-Advanced in conformity with the above 2 engineerings are still under development and are viz. called
Figure 8: Unified Architecture for IMT-Advanced Systems [ 2 ] .
The figure above illustrates the perceptual experience of a incorporate architecture developed by IMT-Advanced web built on IP as the common bed protocol. This interface facilitates services that allow the usage of communicating webs by the yet to be developed devices. With important betterments in entree velocities popular applications in wire line can be transferred under radio webs in a indistinguishable flawless manner.
Application of 4G:
Virtual Presence: 4G would supply user services to its users at all times irrespective of the fact that the user is on or offsite. The location applications of 4G would keep a practical database incorporating graphical representations and physical features of metropolitan countries. This database can be accessed by users from anyplace by utilizing appropriate radio equipment, which would give the platform to look practical.
Tele-medicine: 4G would make a platform to supervise the wellness of patients remotely through video-conferencing with the capableness for physician ‘s aid at anyplace and at anytime.
Crisis-Management Applications: Natural catastrophes taking to the dislocation of full communications substructure needs to be restored every bit rapidly as possible. In general it may take about a hebdomad or so to reconstruct the services with 4G the communicating services can be re-established in a twosome of hours.
Virtual Navigation: It will supply practical pilotage to users so that they can entree practical database to visualise the internal design of edifices. It requires really high velocity of transmittal.
Tele-Geo Processing Applications: It would incorporate GPS ( Global Positioning System ) and GIS ( Geographic Information Systems ) supplying the users with location querying.
Education: 4G would supply the chance to the people across the Earth to go on online instruction in a cost effectual mode.
Multimedia-Video Servicess: 4G radio engineering is anticipated to present high informations rates of multimedia services expeditiously. There are two different types of picture services: Streaming picture and Bursting. Streaming is used merely for real-time services and bursting is used for file download utilizing a buffer and can take advantage of the full available bandwidth.
Integration of both 2g/3g and 4g nucleus web maps is an ideal solution for operators looking to accomplish capital and operational efficiencies along their upgrade way. A individual node as a co-located SGSN+MME and a node as a co-located GGSN+SGW+PGW can function both as a 2G/3G and a 4G web. Cisco ‘s solution offers the flexibleness to uncouple maps when the web traffic and denseness grows. Operators can ease their 4G development by bit by bit change overing the bing systems into combined 2G/3G/4G towards constructing an ultimate 4G system. The solution meets many of the demands of LTE and SAE like incorporate intelligence, enhanced mobility and others. This solution provides the advantage of maintaining the bing system in action along with the augmentation of 4G so that operators can still utilize the present system if and when desired. It can back up 2G/3G today and through a package upgrade these solutions can back up 4G functionality every bit good when LTE webs are deployed. Cisco claims that “ operators need non execute forklift ascents when germinating to 4G ” . Existing SGSN, GGSN, or PDG can be upgraded to 4G functional elements – MME, SGW, PGW, and ePDG through the solution. The being of a package upgrade solution to exchange from 2G/3G to 4G shows the compatibility of 4G with 2G/3G.
Figure 9: Cisco Solution Mobile Network Deployment Example [ 9 ] .
5G- Fifth Coevals:
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