1 ) Mg2+ Has 10 negatrons.
2 ) Carbon -14 would non be effectual at dating castanetss that are 1000000s of old ages old. Carbon -14 is effectual at dating to a upper limit of 40 000 to 50 000 old ages old. The isotope decays over clip and would non be present on castanetss that are 1000000s of old ages old. 3 ) Hydrolysis – Water used to breakdown molecules. Hydro means H2O and lysis agencies to breakdown. An illustration of hydrolysis in action within our organic structures is how our organic structure breaks down protein into aminic acids. Water is used to interrupt protein down in to its amino acids.
Condensation- Condensation is when two molecules combine and form one bigger molecule. It is exact opposite procedure of hydrolysis. It is besides called desiccation synthesis because H2O is removed “dehydrated” in forming of new molecule. This reaction happens in our organic structures when we form muscle tissue.
Oxidization-Reduction ( REDOX ) – This reaction describes the procedure of transportation of negatrons from one reactant to another. The gaining of negatrons is known as decrease and losing negatrons is called oxidation. It is normally referred to as REDOX ( REDuction/OXidization ) . One illustration of oxidation-reduction within our organic structures is during cellular respiration. Question 4 is a chemical equation stand foring this procedure.
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Neutralization – Involves acids and bases and bring forthing H2O and a salt. Acids contain Hydrogen Ions and Bases contain Hydroxide Ions. The best illustration of neutralisation in our organic structures is the carbonaceous acid hydrogen carbonate buffer. It contains acerb and base and maintains our bloods Ph degree. If our blood becomes acidic or basic this buffer neutralizes conditions.
4 ) C6H12O6+6O2– & gt ; 6CO2+6H2O
a ) Carbon atoms in glucose are being oxidized
B ) Oxygen is being reduced
Unit of measurement 1 Lesson 2 Key Questions
5 ) a ) Carbohydrates monomer ( s ) is monosaccharide’s which are simple sugars. The functional groups of saccharides are carbonyl and hydroxyl. The linkage type is a glycosidic bind. Carbohydrates primary map is to supply energy for the organic structure. B ) Proteins monomer ( s ) are called aminic acids. The functional groups are called aminos and carboxyls. The linkage type is by utilizing a peptide bond. The primary map of protein is build and repairs the organic structure. degree Celsius ) Lipids monomer ( s ) are called fatty acid and glycerin. The functional group is called ester. The linkage type of lipoids is non polar bonds or sometimes called ester bonds. The primary map of lipoids is energy. endocrine production and insularity of the organic structure. D ) Nucleic Acids monomer ( s ) are called nucleotide. The functional group is dna ( Deoxyribonucleic acid ) and ribonucleic acid ( Ribonucleic acid ) . The linkage type is covalent bonds and H bonds. The primary map of nucleic acid is to hive away and reassign familial stuff.
Box on right illustrates the peptide bond ensuing from the condensation of both the amino acids. The box on the left illustrates the separation of the hydrated oxide group from glycine and the H atom from valine. 7 ) a ) You would make the Benedict’s reagent trial for simple sugars and the Lugol’s solution or Iodine trial for polyoses and amylum. To prove the lipoids you would utilize the Sudan four trial and Biurets reagent trial for protein. B ) Benedict test the solution colour will alter from bluish to pink/orange ruddy. bespeaking simple sugars are present. Lugols test the solution colour will alter from xanthous brown to dark purple. bespeaking amylum and polyoses are present. Sudan four trial the lipid content will turn into ruddy. bespeaking lipoids are present. Biuret test the solution coloring material will alter from Blue to tap. bespeaking protein is present.
UNIT 1 Lesson 3 Key Questions
8 ) Enzymes are protein accelerators that speed up chemical reactions. without being consumed by the reactions themselves. For the reaction to happen. the reactions have to get the better of the activation energy barrier. The enzymes work by take downing the activation energy. The two substrates are bounded and optimally positioned. the reaction can continue to organize or interrupt chemical bonds. You must advert the presence of consecutive hits.
9 ) a ) Enzymes work in really limited temperature and Ph scope. If Ph is altered even somewhat it can decelerate down or wholly halt the enzymes action. It is a construct known as enzyme specificity. When pH of a peculiar medium alterations. it leads to change in the form of the enzyme or the substrate and if denaturation occurs the procedure stops wholly. B ) The relationship between rate of reaction and concentration of substrate depends on the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate. The higher the substrate concentration the more rapidly merchandise is produced ( rate of reaction additions ) until enzyme impregnation is reached at which clip more substrate has no farther consequence. 10 ) Enzyme A the Optimal Ph seems to be Ph4 and Optimal Temperature seems to be 370 c. Enzyme B the optimum Ph seems to be Ph7 and the optimum temperature is a scope between 40c -80oc. Enzyme C the optimum Ph seems to be a scope between Ph1 and Ph 13 and the optimum temperature seems to be 200c.
11 ) Three benefits of enzymes in nutrient engineering are:
Options to chemical based engineering. can replace chemicals in many procedures. This can let existent progresss in the environmental public presentation of production procedures. through lower energy ingestion and biodegradability. More specific in action than man-made chemicals. Procedures which use enzymes hence has fewer side effects and waste by-products. bring forthing higher quality merchandises. Let procedures to be carried out which would otherwise be impossible. Like altering coloring material of nutrient merchandises or leting merchandises to be clear like apple juice uses pectinase enzyme.
Unit of measurement 1 Lesson 4 Key Questions
12 ) Mitochondria produce ATP or energy. Muscle cells contract and utilize energy at a rapid rate and necessitate more ATP than a fat cell would necessitate. Muscles are required for motion so each motion requires ATP and musculus cells in mammals besides are sued to bring forth heat. besides necessitating more ATP. Fat cells are energy storage. 13 ) a ) Diffusion does non necessitate energy. Active Transport require energy or ATP. B ) Diffusion goes from high to low concentration while active conveyance goes from low to high. 14 ) Receptor-mediated endocytosis has receptor. and is specific. merely certain specific molecules can come in. Phagocytosis surrounds its nutrient without truly cognizing what it is. cell membrane engulfs big molecule with a cyst. 15 ) Integral proteins let polar molecules like H2O to go through through the non polar inside of the membrane. Cholesterol makes the membrane sturdy and more stiff than it would be without.
16 ) Angstrom ) The intent of this experiment is to look into the motion of H2O in and out of a carrot-osmometer as a consequence of being placed in two different solutions: distilled H2O. and a 10 % salt solution. B ) Beaker A contained distilled H2O Whenever there is motion of H2O. it is from a part of higher concentration to lower concentration. as there’s a autumn in the H2O degree in beaker B. This is because the cells of the carrot placed in beaker B have a lower H2O potency than the distilled H2O on the exterior. So H2O molecules undergo osmosis from higher H2O potency to take down. from the outside H2O into the cells of carrot. This consequences in the autumn in H2O degree.
17 ) Salt H2O when used for rinsing oral cavity becomes hypertonic in relation to the fluid inside the cell of the gums that are swelled. As the fluid of two concentrations is separated by a semi-permeable membrane. osmosis starts to do a balance. In this procedure fluid comes out of the cells of the gums to do fluid in oral cavity isosmotic to intracellular fluid. This helps cut downing intracellular fluid and therefore cut downing the puffiness of the gums.
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