Ligand Phamaceuticals Essay

Describe what you believe is implied by the term “engagement hazard. ” What are the cardinal factors probably considered by Deloitte and other audit houses when measuring battle hazard? How. if at all. are auditors’ professional duties affected when a client proposes a higher than normal grade of battle hazard?

I believe that the term “engagement risk” implies that built-in client-specific hazards face an hearer throughout the class of an audit. therefore making a hazard that the hearer will be unable to successfully measure and pull off these hazards in the public presentation of the battle and decently publish an appropriate sentiment. The hearer must understand these client-specific hazards. which include. but are non limited to. important events that affect the operations of the client. concern hazards confronting the client. bad countries that require complex or subjective accounting interventions. and timely completion of the audit.

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When a client proposes a higher than normal grade of battle hazard. the focal point on the auditors’ professional duties becomes even more imperative. as it is critical that the hearer perform at the highest degree to supply the greatest possible confidence that the fiscal statements are presented reasonably. in all material respects. What quality control mechanisms should major accounting houses have in topographic point to guarantee that audit spouses have the proper preparation and experience to oversee audit battles?

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In any major accounting house. guaranting that audit spouses are qualified to oversee and scrutinize battle begins at the “top” of the organisation and should be expressed through the actions of the house. Spouses should ever be promoted and assigned to battles based on their experience. preparation. and overall makings ; ne’er should publicities or assignment be based on anything other than absolute competence. Besides. publicities and other considerations for employees and spouses should be based on the quality of work performed. therefore giving inducement across the house to bring forth the best work possible in any state of affairs.

Finally. houses should apportion important resources to guaranting that employees are sufficiently trained. every bit good as heightening bing quality control policies. Identify the accounting criterions and constructs that dictate the proper accounting intervention for gross revenues returns. How were these criterions violated by Ligand? Accounting Standards Codification: •ASC 605-15-25 Recognition – Gross saless of merchandises with right to return are recognized as gross so long as they meet all of a list of conditions. ASC 605-15-45 Other Presentation Matters – For any gross revenues made with a right of return in which the standards in paragraph 605-15-25-1 are met gross and cost of gross revenues reported in the income statement shall be reduced to reflect estimated returns. •ASC 605-15-23 – Defines the factors that may impair the ability to do a sensible estimation Ligand was able to follow with about all of these criterions. They did acknowledge grosss related to the sale of the merchandises. and were able to do an estimation of the expected gross revenues returns.

Where Ligand violated these criterions was in ASC 605-15-23. where the deficiency of historical or homogenous minutess impaired their ability to do an appropriate estimation. Ligand should hold estimated a higher per centum of gross revenues returns. instead than trusting on their ain outlooks of what part of the sold merchandises would be returned. During the reappraisal of Ligand’s first one-fourth fiscal statements for 2004. the Deloitte hearers learned that the company had significantly underestimated its hereafter gross revenues returns at the terminal of 2003.

What duty. if any. did this topographic point on the Deloitte hearers? To get down with. upon acquisition of the mistake in appraisal made by Ligand. Deloitte inherited the duty to urge the rectification of the old year’s fiscal statements. This duty stems from two chief facts. First. hearers are Certified Public Accountants and as such. have a duty to function the best involvements of the populace. ( Louwers 583 ) By non urging a restatement of the fiscal statements. Deloitte would be wittingly leting the populace to trust on information that is non accurate.

Second. Deloitte should urge the restatement to guarantee that they are exerting due professional attention. the deficiency of which could take to lawsuit or punishment ( which they finally got ) . Since its origin. the PCAOB has been criticized by many parties. Sum up the principal ailments that have been directed at the PCAOB. Do you believe this unfavorable judgment is justified? Explain. What measures could the PCAOB return to better its effectivity as a regulative organic structure?

In general. the chief unfavorable judgments of the PCAOB are that it has non made sufficient it’s regulative power. it is slow to move in its probes of enforcement instances. and that it targets enforcement on smaller houses in order to protect the Big 4 houses. which are regarded as “too large to neglect. ” While I do non differ with the fact that the PCAOB is slow and has non produced a important sum of ordinance. I do disagree with the unfavorable judgment of the PCAOB as a regulative organic structure in general.

I feel that certain members of the public desire absolute transparence in fiscal coverage. but do non understand the economic system required to so. It is about impossible. non to advert impractical. to breakdown every facet of a multi-billion dollar corporation to guarantee that every dealing is accounted for accurately. but it is possible to give confidence that the fiscal statements are free of stuff mistake and are dependable to the users of them.

That is what hearers do and the PCAOB. even as a immature entity. has ensured that audit houses have maintained that criterion of dependability. To better as a regulative organic structure. I think that the PCAOB could spread out in size. every bit good as invest more resources into better understanding the countries in scrutinizing that are the most hard to supply confidence in.

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