Manual Work, Worker Machine and Automated Work Systems

Manual work, Worker machine and Automated work systems

Chapter 1: Manual work systems

1.1 Introduction

Any work process done by worker one or more undertakings without utilizing power tools consider as manual work system. Manual work can sort in to two classs pure manual and manual work utilizing manus tools.

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1.2 Cycle clip

The entire clip involved in the procedure defined as rhythm clip. If the procedure consist of all three classs which are manual work, manual work and machine and machine-controlled system the amount of those classs defined as entire rhythm clip. If the work rhythm is similar in one rhythm to following rhythm called insistent work rhythm and if it take long clip and vary from one rhythm to following rhythm is called not insistent work

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1.3 Efficiency

Due to increase of client demand and development of engineering many industries converted in to machine-controlled work systems. The largest machine-controlled system is in Toyota company. They discovered manual work systems more efficient than machine-controlled work systems.

1.4 Time discrepancy

Human can non make insistent work than machines. because human get fatigue in long clip of work and acquire lazy and cut down the productiveness rate. Many instances same insistent work has different rhythm clip due to human activity.

1.5 Performance

If the worker does the undertaking fast public presentation will increase and cut down rhythm clip. To cipher public presentation of worker two constructs were introduced called Normal public presentation and standard public presentation.

1.5.1 Normal Performance

This is defined as norm trained worker go through a whole work in a displacement without interrupting and other wellness conditions. The benchmark is consider as 100 % . If the work public presentation higher than 100 % consider as faster gait and lower than 100 % consider as slower gait.

1.5.2 Standard public presentation

The lone differences between normal public presentation and standard public presentation are interrupting clip and other wellness conditions are included in standard public presentation.

1.6 Manufacturing systems

Manual work systems can non be used in big scale fabrication procedure. Because productiveness is rather low to machine-controlled work systems but efficiency is higher in manual work systems in some instances. In mass production assembly line used for produce big sum of merchandises. In that sort of procedure insistent work to be done every displacement. Some workstations need changeless rhythm clip in the procedure. To maintain the rhythm clip invariably automated systems are used otherwise following work station demand for waiting and make waste harmonizing to Lean fabrication.

1.8 addition productiveness

If the worker in good working environment it increase productiveness. In manual work systems this depend on following conditions. Body height and working tallness, lightning, working country, scope of vision, design tools and planning tools, Adjustment of work equipment. These status addition the quality of the merchandise and productiveness.

1.9 In industry

The chief job in developed states is high labor cost. Many fabricating companies shut down and shifted in to developing states. To get the better of this issue manual work systems transform in to machine-controlled work systems. Safety is another job in industry during the procedure workers have to cover with tools. Without appropriate process they will acquire injury. Production can categories in to three occupation production, batch production and mass production. Manual work systems are used in all the production classs appropriate to requirement

Chapter 2: Worker machine Systems

If the workers accomplish the work utilizing powered tools considers as worker machine system. This is the most widely used method in work systems. Examples for this system are machinist working on lathe machine, draughtsman utilizing computing machine for pulling, building worker runing a machine in the site.

2.1 Advantages of worker machine system

The jobs that occur in manual work systems can pull strings by worker machine systems, such as able to execute insistent work, apply high force harmonizing to work demand, execute multiple undertakings at a clip. Both human and machine are contributed in the system, so work can split in to both human and machine

2.2 Types of worker machine systems

Powered machines need some sort of a power beginning to bring forth power. Largely used power beginnings are electricity, hydraulic, pneumatic, crude oil. this power resources are used to change over mechanical energy to work. The machines classifies in to three classs portable power tools, stationary powered machines and nomadic powered machines. Portable power tools are low weight can transport by the worker from one work topographic point to another work topographic point such as power Anethum graveolenss, electric proverb and electric pruners.

Mobile powered equipment classs in to transit equipment, Transportable and nomadic and movable and stationary. These equipment are really heavy and can non utilize as portable. Cars, coachs, trucks and train are the illustration for this. Movable and nomadic equipment can travel while operation, building equipment, forklift trucks and tractors are illustration for this. Third class is movable and stationary, this sort of equipment can travel one work topographic point to another but it perform on stationary status merely. Electric generator is a good illustration for this.

Stationary powered tools are classify in to machine tools, office equipment and other machinery. Machine tools are remain stationary for signifier parts such as machining, milling, turning, boring and shearing. Most of the office equipment are power driven by electricity. Office equipment consist with computing machines, fax machines, photocopy machines and telephones.

2.3 Number of workers and machines

This has classs in to four subdivisions. One worker one machine, one worker multiple machines, multiple worker one machine and multiple workers multiple machines. If the plants place consist of one worker and one machine following design process is required.

  • Machine should be easy to command for worker
  • The worker’s undertaking must be accomplish by the machine while operation
  • The waiting clip should cut down for both worker and machine
  • Main undertaking is safety worker should be wear protective apparels for appropriate machine to get the better of jeopardies
  • The worker must concentrate 100 % attending to the machine during operation

2.4 Cycle clip for worker machine system

In worker machine work systems rhythm clip analyze by two methods. One is machine operation clip is changeless non depend on worker control. Following one is machine clip is depend on worker, in this one repetitive or non-repetitive. For insistent undertaking typist typing list of names in typewriter, in workshop worker runing power buffer, carpenter utilizing power saw to cut standard length of wood. For non-repetitive work rhythm illustrations are carpenter build a furniture for house utilizing power tools,

2.5 Attention degree on machine

Some worker machine systems required 100 % attending during the operation but other operations is non necessary. This can categories in to four subdivisions. 100 % attending, portion clip attending during each work rhythm, periodic attending during regular operation, periodic attending in random operation. In assemble line worker has to concentrate full clip attending on the undertaking. The attending on 100 % on undertaking may be insistent or non-repetitive. In assembly line it is insistent but if the worker driving truck it is consider as non-repetitive. Part clip attending is less than 100 % on the machine but it is insistent and rhythm.

2.6 convergence between worker and machine

If the machine consist of different operations can execute at the same time convergences will happen. This means worker can make multiple operation in a individual machine

Chapter 3: Automated work systems

Automation defines as accomplish a procedure or command a system by equipment without utilizing human aid. In worker machine system and mechanization work system have similarities, some sort of mechanization system occur in worker machine systems.

3.1 In industry

In developed states automated work systems are wildly used because of high labor cost. Particularly in mass production environment. Number of electrical devices are required in procedure such as actuators. Detectors, PLC, designed plans and command board. There are some other grounds for usage of machine-controlled work systems in industry, insistent undertakings, safety, cut down cost, quality control, preciseness and existent tolerance, imitating and mold, productiveness addition. Any manner industries in developing states off from this system because of intolerable care and equipment cost.

3.2 Forms of mechanization

Automated system classify in to to the full automated and semiautomatic systems. In semiautomatic system execute under control of plan and human worker. For input and end product procedure such as burden and unloading. For illustration in an machine-controlled lathe machine most of the procedure are done by plan bur concluding homo worker demand to drop the work piece.

Fully automated system vary from semi-automated system by the clip taken in human worker in the work rhythm. So to the full automated system doesn’t require human worker in each rhythm. This sort of procedure occur in injection casting workss. Anyway figure of workers require to supervise the procedure for verify procedure is traveling on harmonizing to specifications. This sort of procedure occur in chemical processing industries and atomic workss.

3.3 Decision

Harmonizing to industrial work systems vary from required undertaking. In developing states wildly use manual working and worker machine systems for deficiency of capital and cost. In future engineering will develop and more and more machine-controlled systems will come may be there won’t any manual work in future


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