Rising interest on entrepreneurship

1.0 Introduction

The lifting involvement on entrepreneurship has become a regular subjects discussed among academician and politician and there are many grounds can be seen worldwide ( Levenburg and Schwarz, 2008 ) . In the U.S entirely, for the past 10 old ages, on averaged 600,000 new concerns was incorporated each twelvemonth ( Kuratko, 2005 ) . There is besides a important addition in endowment received by concern schools in the U.S. for entrepreneurship activities. Since 1995 US $ 10 million had been contributed compared to an mean US $ 500,000 to US $ 1 million in early 1990s ( Katz, 2003 ) . Studies on 40 states entrepreneurship activities by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ( GEM ) have seen the crisp increased from 2 per cent to 29 per had confirm this fact ( Levenburg and Schwarz, 2008 ) .

There are many grounds for it and why it is going more of import presents. Due to the advantages and attraction of entrepreneurship in the economic system, Lambing and Kuehl ( 2007 ) noted a singular addition in new concern in the U.S. for the past 10 – 15 old ages. The pattern of retrenchment by large houses besides believed to lend into the increasing figure of people sing entrepreneurship as a calling non merely because of unemployment but besides diminishing involvement of people prosecuting calling in a large corporation. They feel that the organisations have no longer provided the occupation security and calling chances that they one time did. The usage of engineering in the on the job topographic points had taking off many occupations in the organisation and reduced the demand for labour and director in large houses. Due to these factors, many people make up one’s minding to go independent in prosecuting their economic demands ( Lambing and Kuehl, 2007 ) .

This text is NOT unique.

Don't plagiarize, get content from our essay writers!
Order now

Entrepreneurial houses had a important part into the economic system as they become a portion of reclamation procedure of worsening economic systems with its invention which lead to technological alteration and growing in productiveness. Not merely that, they besides become the chief employment supplier which enable all walk of life to entree the economic achievement ( Kuratko, 2005 ) .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

In Malaysia, the earnestness of the authorities in advancing entrepreneurship among Malayan can be seen with assorted plans and inducements offered to the current and future enterpriser. In 2007, Prime Minister of Malaysia, YAB Dato ‘ Seri Abdullah bin Hj. Ahmad Badawi had presented in the National budget a particular docket that cater to develop competitory Bumiputera enterpriser. Several public and private bureaus had besides be formed such as the formation of Perbadanan Usahawan Nasional Berhad ( PUNB ) in 1991 which has successfully developed Bumiputera enterprisers in strategic industries and trade sectors such as in oil and gas, electrical and electronics and ICT ( 2007 Budget Speech by Prime Minister ) . In order to back up this attempt financially, fiscal establishments such as Bank Simpanan Malaysia and Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia will supplying micro recognition installations to Bumiputera enterpriser and go one of the cogent evidence to the authorities attempt to advance entrepreneurial pursuit among its citizens.

There is no uncertainty on the of import of entrepreneurship for the state ‘s economic system as Ibrahim and Soufani ( 2002 ) found in their research. The little concern sector in Canada plays a important function in the economic system. However, without proper preparation and counsel there is a likeliness that the enterpriser will confront the concern failure as found out by Ibrahim and Soufani ( 2002 ) . They had identified the major cause of the high failure rate in a new concern venture is the enterpriser ‘ deficiency of managerial accomplishments and competences and agreed that entrepreneurship preparation is a cardinal scheme to cut down the high failure rate in the little concern sector. This is supported by Sullivan ( 2000 ) who stated that entrepreneurial acquisition is of critical importance to the endurance and growing of SMEs in most market places.

Henry et Al ( 2005 ) suggested that in order for entrepreneurial development plans to be effectual, larning must be based in existent work state of affairss so that a individual can implement what they have learnt better. The usage of Kolb ‘s learning rhythm that is involved in sing, reflecting, gestating, and experimentation construct during the procedure of acquisition will assist them to use what they have learnt in the existent organisational or concern puting into their ain venture. This is when the entrepreneurship instruction can play its function and going the instrument in making more and more enterpriser in the society. However it is important to understand who is enterpriser and what are their traits so that the larning procedure can be programmed in such a manner that benefit to the mark audience and able to make its aims.


To better understand the subject, this portion will explicate the theoretical construct of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship traits, and motive factors of enterprisers.

Entrepreneurship is a dynamic topic to discourse and there are many angles it can be viewed, critics, and studied and there is no 1 fixed definition for it ( Zimmerer et al, 2008 ; Brooks, 2009 ; Barringer and Ireland, 2008 ) . The definitions are different from one author to another where most of it are derived from their readings or research they had conducted. Brooks ( 2009 ) viewed entrepreneurship from the classical economic theoretical account and defined entrepreneurship as a factor of production, or an input to production such as labour, physical capital, human capital, and land and enterpriser is an person who put the component of accomplishments and hazard that they add into the inputs.

Joseph Schumpeter ( an Austrian economic expert ) describes entrepreneurship as an economic force that had droved capitalist economy in the western universe which chiefly characterize by the will to win, fight and success in the economic activity ( Brooks, 2009 ) . Brooks ( 2009 ) adds that entrepreneurship success comes from the creativeness and innovativeness of an person or organisation which gives tremendous impact to the economic system by making of new occupations and employment chance.

Harmonizing to Wenneker and Thurik ( 1999 ) enterpriser can be divided “into three rational traditions harmonizing to the German, neo-classical, and Austrian”which summarized the map of enterpriser as a leader to market stableness through entrepreneurial activities, profitableness self-seeker, and “creator of instability through its originative destruction” . Based on this survey Hebert and Link ( 1989 ) defined the enterpriser as “someone who specializes in taking duty for and doing judgmental determinations that affect the location, signifier, and the usage of goods, resources, or institutions” ( Wenneker and Thurik, 1999 ) .

Entrepreneurship is made of enterpriser that is an person who creates new concern in the face of hazard and uncertainness for accomplishing net income and growing chances ( Zimmerer et al, 2008 ) . These persons than assembles necessary resources to capitalise those chances in order to happen its ends. There are different positions on which entrepreneurship traits that truly turn person to go successful enterpriser. Table 1 summarized some of the entrepreneurship traits in the position of different authors and research workers.


Entrepreneurship Traits

Zimmerer et Al ( 2008 ) from David McClelland

1. Desire for duty

2. Preference for moderate hazard ( risk eliminators )

3. Assurance in their ability to win

4. Desire for immediate feedback

5. High degree of energy

6. Future orientation ( consecutive enterprisers )

7. Skill in organisation

8. Value of accomplishment over money

Zimmerer et Al ( 2008 )

1. High grade of committedness

2. Willingness to accept hazard, work difficult and take action

3. Flexibility

Barringer and Ireland ( 2008 )

1. Passion for the Business

2. Product/Customer Focus

3. Tenacity Despite Failure

4. Execution Intelligence

David A. Kirby ( 2004 )

1. Risk-taking capableness

2. Need for accomplishment

3. Locus control

4. Desire for liberty

5. Deviancy

6. Creativity and self-interest

7. Intuition

Timmons et Al from David A. Kirby ( 2004 )

1. Entire committedness, finding, and doggedness

2. Drive to accomplish and turn

3. Orientation to ends and chances

4. Taking inaugural and personal duty

5. Veridical consciousness and a sense of temper

6. Seeking and utilizing feedback

7. Internal venue control

8. Tolerance of ambiguity, emphasis and uncertainness

9. Calculated risk-taking and hazard sharing

10. Low demand for position and power

11. Integrity and dependability

12. Decisiveness, urgency and forbearance

13. Learning from failure

14. Team builder and hero shaper

Mario Rutten ( 2001 ) on Chinese enterpriser

1. Strong accent on personal promotion

2. Hard work and selflessness for the household honor, community, and ascendants.

Alina M. Zapalska and Will Edwards ( 2001 ) on traditional authorization and entrepreneurial civilization for way in life

1. Confucian civilization to the household

2. A strong inclination to advance the collective or the group

3. A deep regard for age, hierarchy, and authorization

4. Importance of repute achieved through difficult work and successful endeavor

Colette Henry, Frances Hill, and Claire Leitch ( 2005 )

1. Entrepreneur is person who involved in the procedure of making something different – in the concern.

Donald F. Kuratko ( 2005 ) on entrepreneurship features

1. Opportunities searchers

2. Beyond security hazard taker

3. Tenacity toA push thought through world

Table 1: The summarize entrepreneurship traits

What actuate single to go an enterpriser?

What actuate a individual to go an enterpriser? There are many writers or research workers that had conducted on such affair had varies in positions from the facet of psychological science, sociology and economic anthropology. From the position of psychological science, this research attempt to look into the mental theoretical account of an enterpriser whether their motive or behaviour is based on idea that they see from environing which relate one portion to another that eventually have the effects to their actions. For illustration, research by Autere and Autio ( 2000 ) had found that from their qualitative survey on the little package houses in Finland, miming behaviour of success concerns plays a function in making new enterpriser and their behavior orientation can be acquired through imitation. The mental theoretical account of the direction in the large houses besides influenced the behaviour of new and little houses, and hence can be learned through experience and external influences. The growth-oriented of the external theoretical account perceived by the new enterpriser besides influence their behaviour toward promotion of their concern. By exposing the growth-oriented mental theoretical accounts into the direction of the new concern, this will bring on greater growing orientation among their directors. They besides found that if the exposure to growth-oriented mental theoretical accounts is introduce earlier in the concern life, this will transfuse a growth-oriented civilization in the house and lead to faster growing in the hereafter.

There are besides many inquiries on whether there are different actuating factors on single from different civilization. Many research workers try to explicate this human economic behaviour and this is what the economic anthropology comes into the image. Economic anthropology is a description and analysis of economic life, utilizing an anthropological position which attacks and locates facets of people ‘s single and corporate lives ( personal and society ) and how it ‘s associating with one another ( Carrier, 2005 ) .A Durrenberger ( 2005 ) depict the economic anthropology as a system in which people produce, distribute, and consume goods in order to run into their stuff demands and this systems look into howA it was organized, operate, created, and connected to other systems.

Dalton ( 1968 ) mentioned that the economic anthropology is concerned with the organisation of economic system and its connexion between economic and societal organisation and the consequences of economic procedure which relates to productiveness. Because of this grounds, the enterpriser exist due to the demands of the society that need to be filled and this being profit the society with consistently organized economic system where the exchange of demands can be met.

What drive an enterpriser can be said that human wants are no longer limited and LeClair Jr. ( 1962 ) mentioned that modern-day economic expert have long since adopted a broader position of human wants. A individual has to cover with the fact that their aspirations ever exceed their capablenesss and they have to conserve their capablenesss with the significance of run intoing their desires to the fullest extent possible ( LeClair Jr. , 1962 ) . This can be filled with the association of economic procedure which described by LeClair Jr. ( 1962 ) as an event of bring forthing goods or services for use or ingestion of the green goods goods or services for the satisfaction of human wants.

One of the major paradigms in economic anthropology is culturalism. One of the focal point in this survey would be seeking to find whether civilization play an of import function in promoting the entrepreneurship behaviour among member of its society. It is important to understand what civilization is all about before we know what function it plays in the entrepreneurship. Schein ( 2004 ) defined civilization as a form of shared basic premises that group learned as it solved its jobs through external version with the internal integratings. When this has worked good plenty to be considered valid, therefore it is taught to new members as it is a right manner to comprehend, believe and experience in relation to the jobs. Schein ( 2004 ) classified the degree of civilization from the surface to the deepest degree based on the grade of visibleness of the cultural phenomenon to the perceiver.

Artifacts such as architecture, linguistic communication, engineering, merchandises, etc. are at the surface of cultural degree which is the seeable organisational constructions and processes that can be sees, hears, and feels ( Schein 2004 ) . A individual reading on others will be predictably being the projections of his feelings and reactions from his experienced. Related to this, a individual motive to go an enterpriser can be from his experienced by looking what the benefits and wagess that entrepreneurship can offer from his environing. If he saw it as a positive experienced, there is a positive inclination that he will besides motivated to make the same and frailty versa.

The motive to go an enterpriser can besides do by the personality of different single. Different civilization does hold different perceptual experience on how a individual develops their personality. Peoples from Asia are known as less focused on distinguishing the person from the group and put less accent on self-actualization comparison to the westerners which have a strong constructs of the individualistic where being different from the group is non being seen as indifferent ( Schein, 2004 ) . Asiatic sees group sentiment or values is more of import than taking ain actions and benefits to the group is more of import than their ain and ever set their ain involvement last. For illustration, Asiatic Chinese enterprisers hold a strong belief in corporate organisation direction and see challenges as a group endeavors instead than single aims ( Zapalska and Edwards, 2001 ) .

This is why some successful enterpriser is found to come from a group or households. Berger ( 1991 ) explains that household entrepreneurship is straight responsible for Hong Kong ‘s extraordinary economic success. Paternalistic direction manner in the traditional Chinese household where the male parent in the household had the bossy power is responsible for adding household wealth had become the ground of the household economic promotion. This creates competition among households and this manner was brought into the concern which eventually creates barbarous competition among houses. However because of this competition, research workers found that household based house does non last long. Their appraisal is between two and a half to three coevalss ( Berger, 1991 ) . The function of household as the most critical component in developing single entrepreneurial character was besides supported by Gupta ( 1991 ) from her interviews on Indian enterprisers.

The rise of economic success of Chinese business communities in recent old ages besides being said to be contributed by the solidarity, intimacy and strong ties between household and kin that they had portrayed. Unlike their opposite number on the West which emphasized more on individualistic spirit, Bolshevism is being the nucleus values that they hold in making concern. Rutten ( 2001 ) believed that uniting with personal trueness to household and group public assistance, societal and household environment with strong traditional values and patterns, has contributed to the development of entrepreneurship in Asia.

However, a state promotion and advancement do non take topographic point in a individual society as a whole but through the web of diversified collective of its societal life. To boom, small-scale enterprisers have to develop their proficient and societal accomplishments. They have to construct the external webs between providers, Sellerss, clients, enterpriser and others and made them go portion of the institutional constructions that they had built ( Berger, 1991 ) . In order to success, web had become an component which play an of import function in making concern ( Gidsell, 1991 ) .

This institutional construction is non merely in the signifier of household dealingss but besides in the cultural group they belong. It is believed that enterpriser from the same cultural had the advantages and benefited from belonging to the group because of they shared same moralss and cultural norms. Landa ( 1991 ) found that the shared moralss and cultural norms had functioned as societal capital where they can cut down cost of concern by having low involvement or even involvement free loan from fellow cultural enterpriser. Gidsell ( 1991 ) found that enterpriser from the same cultural groups non merely supplying initial capital and stock but besides the running the daily operation of business.A

Social capital is non the lone capital that this cultural enterpriser received. Godsell ( 1991 ) mentioned that web built in the cultural groups did supply the enterpriser with religious capital. This web becomes the manner of their endurance and as a consequence thriving the community. Tangible acknowledgment in the signifier of honorary doctor’s degrees and other public awards ( Godsell, 1991 ) and the structural factors such as faith, civilization and socio-political conditions of community support ( Gupta, 1991 ) would besides assist the enterpriser to travel frontward.

The cultural facet had become the involvement of many research workers that study entrepreneurship and had emerged as survey of cultural entrepreneurship ( Light, 2004 ; Greene and Chaganti, 2004 ; Iyer, 2004 ) . This survey had ranged from the entrepreneurial behaviour into the fiscal facet of the concern. Light ( 2004 ) seen cultural entrepreneurship as an economic activity that had consequence from the actions of minority cultural group to cut down their disadvantage and exclusion from the labour market. Self-employment or entrepreneurship had played a major function in this community and as a consequence, cultural enterpriser are ever seen as an employment supplier to fellow co-ethnic when the employment chances is limited for them.A


Because of the challenges and unsure future face by the people today, there will be a greater demand for them to hold entrepreneurial accomplishments and abilities so they can cover it with. Factors such as decrease of trade barriers due to the globalisation of economic system, engineering promotion, denationalization of public service has created complexness and uncertainness in the society which cause alterations in organizational direction and even single perceptual experience towards employment ( Henry et al, 2005 ) . The altering landscapes of economic environment give of import function for entrepreneurship instruction to play.

The of import of entrepreneurship instruction can be seen as it becomes the political docket and the precedence for both industrially developed and developing states. It is agree that the entrepreneurship instruction can increase the quality and measure of alumnus enterprisers which enter into the state economic system. Education they received in the higher instruction establishments ‘ had perfectly act upon their attitude towards entrepreneurship and equips them with necessary cognition and accomplishments for entrepreneurial activities ( Matlay, 2006 ) .

With the increasing demand for survey of entrepreneurship, there have been seen the detonation of sudden addition in the figure of entrepreneurship classs offered in the higher instruction establishment where 2,200 classs had been offered at over 1,600 schools in the United States entirely ( Katz, 2003 ) , and it besides believed the same growing of involvement had occurred in other states every bit good such as in Europe and Asia. There are besides a figure of major academic establishments in the U.S which had developed plans in entrepreneurship research. With the research conducted combined with symposium and conference, it has become the agencies of geting for latest developments in entrepreneurship ( Kuratko, 2005 ) .

Even though the gaining popularity and involvement of entrepreneurship instruction in higher instruction establishments, this field is said to be at its early life stage which arguments are still go oning on conceptual and methodological issues. Henry et Al ( 2005 ) said that old research from assorted subjects had been conducted without developing its theoretical model had cause many different analyses and results from the research conducted on the topic. Until now, the different positions prolonged because each of research workers or experts involved do non utilize each other ‘s work and the immense cognition generated on entrepreneurship research had cause the subject to be fragmented and ne’er been cumulated ( Henry et al, 2005 ) .

There are uninterrupted argument ( Henry et al, 2005 ) on entrepreneurship definition and interchangeable term usage to depict entrepreneurship such as enterpriser, endeavor and little concern may non give advantage for the surveies of entrepreneurship and as a consequence it is hard to measure the current state of affairs of entrepreneurship instruction.

Matlay ( 2006 ) suggested the demand for better reappraisal for such programmes because of the being of content difference and its quality among concern schools that had offered such classs and had continuously making arguments among academician related to its rightness and effectivity. In add-on of the troubles of conceptualizing and contextualizing the field of entrepreneurship instruction, will take to a mystifier and mislead policy shaper which cause the credibleness of academician involves affected and inquiries the demand for farther support in this field. However, the attempt to centralise the surveies on entrepreneurship for its excellence can be seen with the constitution of pool of research centre across the U.S. ( Kuratko, 2005 ) .

Harmonizing Kurako ( 2005 ) among the beginnings of understanding on entrepreneurial activities are coming from academic research and publications, observation on enterprisers, addresss and presentations from conferences or seminars. Kuratko from literature reviewed had seen suggestion from assorted research workers sing the entrepreneurship instruction teaching method which among it is the of import to cover with the equivocal nature of concern entry, developing skill-building classs such as dialogue, leading, new merchandise development, originative thought, and exposure to technological invention. Awareness plans such every bit entrepreneurship as employment pick, fiscal and legal facets of concern direction, into out of the category attack such as field trips, audience with practicing enterprisers and even competitions can besides be seen as a good attack in educating future enterprisers.

There are besides suggestions on the of import of sing who the mark audience is in planing such plans. There will be different larning demands of enterpriser at different phases of concern development they presently have. It is necessary to hold different pedagogic approach for different mark audience so the pedagogues and trainer or developing supplier can better their attack in entrepreneurial acquisition. And it is of import to fit and qualify between what are perceived by entrepreneurial features and how to educate it ( Henry et al, 2005 ) . As illustrated by the following tabular array, the model of entrepreneurship instruction can be divided into three degree.

Approach on Entrepreneurship Education

Jamieson ( 1984 )

Garavan and O’Cinneide ( 1994 )

Cox ( 1996 )

McMullan and Boberg ( 1991 )

Degree 1

– Alumnus or undergraduate pupils

– consciousness creative activity

– particular aims on assorted facets of puting up and running a concern

– theoretically perspective

– Foster accomplishments, attitude, and values

– to increase figure of people who knowledgeable about little concern and will see it as a calling in the hereafter

– aims: advancing self-efficacy with respect to new venture creative activity

– provides mastery experience to entrepreneurship experience or chances

– exposure to real-life enterpriser

– Case method was effectual in developing analytical accomplishments and ability to synthesize information.

– Undertaking method perceived to develop and heighten cognition and apprehension of capable country.

Degree 2

– readying of draw a bead oning entrepreneur calling of self-employment

– particular aim: A puting up a concern and running the concern

– practical accomplishments for little concern set-up and direction

– readying of concern program

– provide practical aid to those who want to do passage from traditional employment to self-employment

– focal point: elevation finance, selling job, and legal issues.

Degree 3

– direction preparation for set up enterprisers

– focused on growing and future concern development

– merchandise development and selling

– preparation will provides accomplishments, cognition and attitudes

– go oning little concern instruction.

– Focused to heighten and update their accomplishments.

Table 2: The model of entrepreneurship instruction

Role of academic entrepreneurship must orientated towards advanced and need to alter quickly in order to go the leader in making enterpriser attempt ( Kirby, 2004 ) . He feels it is of import for the concern school to look into the procedure of developing entrepreneurial accomplishments, properties, and behaviors of its pupil in add-on to their apprehension on the concern direction by specifically designed the faculties and classs and by altering the acquisition environment that can assist to develop their consciousness and beef up their entrepreneurial features and accomplishments. He proposed that the traditional manner of larning had to be shifted to more pupils oriented which gives “students ‘ ownership of their acquisition, more engagement in existent word state of affairs, encourages pupils to explicate determinations on uncomplete informations, immediate and doubtful, and supplying function theoretical accounts to them.”

Education is non the lone factors that had motivate alumnuss to go entrepreneurA as Matlay ( 2006 ) found that other grounds for such as the current socio-economy and educational conditions together with personal, household and equal influences frequently affect their desires, motive, and chance.

4.0RESEARCH Question

The inquiry now is whether entrepreneurship instruction can be developed based on the entrepreneurship traits? And is it possible to learn entrepreneurship to others? Zimmerer ( 2008 ) argues that entrepreneurship can non be taught to others but the necessary accomplishments of little concern direction are docile and as Kirby ( 2004 ) noted that “entrepreneurship is about possessing or geting a peculiar set of properties, accomplishments and behaviors” and this can be possessed by larning. The followers will be the sub-questions for this research ;

  1. What is the motive for an person to go an enterpriser based on cultural position?
  2. Are there any differences in motive factors between cultural in Malaysia?
  3. What are the needed traits by the enterpriser in the industry?
  4. Can entrepreneurship traits be transferred?
  5. Is the entrepreneurship plan in the higher proficient establishments address the demands by the enterpriser involve in the industries?
  6. If the needed traits are addressed by the higher proficient establishments, what is the right manner to reassign it to the pupils?


The pick of research method depends on the nature of the research jobs. It is proposed that the research will be utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods.A Based on the literature reappraisal and the theoretical construct of old research, the research worker will utilize the deductive research attack for his research. Thus this attack will be used to prove or verify a theory and besides for a development of bing theories. The theory becomes a model for the full survey, which will assist to form the research inquiries and the informations aggregation process.

The chief respondent for this research will be the enterprisers, instructors and the pupils. The enterpriser will assist the research workers to shortlist or group the long-list of traits that can be found from the literature such as articles from diaries and books and besides assist to place the of import traits that truly needed by them. They will besides propose the best manner of accomplishing this accomplishments or cognition from their ain experienced. The instructors will give input on the of import traits perceived by them, the traits that have been collaborated into the course of study and taught to the pupils and the best methods on reassigning this cognition or traits to the pupils. Meanwhile, the pupils will assist to corroborate whether the aims of the topic are accomplished and the traits or accomplishments that they had grasped.

This research will get down with a preliminary questionnaire sent to enterprisers, pupils and instructors. The questionnaire is used because of its suitableness where it does non required the nowadays of the research worker at the location since the figure of the respondent big and its is scattered around the state. The questionnaire should give a first indicant of making and traits needed. The building of the questionnaires will be based on the research conducted by other research workers which address the same thought on the entrepreneurial traits. The developed questionnaires will so be sent to the respondents where the consequences from the study will help the research worker in finding, grouping and restricting the entrepreneurial traits. The distribution of questionnaires can be done through personal visit, postal service, e-mail and others.

However, questionnaire from study entirely can non give the true replies to the jobs due to the trouble to hold on the issues where tacit cognition is present. There is besides a possibility that the respondent will non be able to understand the issues and giving the right reply to the inquiry due to their motive to finish a long and clip devouring questionnaire ( Cohen, Manion, and Morrison, 2001, p. 109 ) . Therefore, the findings from the preliminary study are of import because it will go the kernel during the building of inquiries for interviews which will follow subsequently.

Qualitative method will besides be used since the “researcher must travel to the people, puting, site, establishment ( the field ) in order to detect behaviour in its natural setting” ( Merriam, 1998, p. 7 ) . Qualitative research processs that will be used include interviews, observation and analysis of paperss.

Interview which is one of the methods used in this research will travel in deepness with the traits which have been determined earlier through the studies. Triangulation or the usage of quantitative and qualitative method of research in analyzing the same research job ( Cohen, Manion, and Morrison, 2001, p. 112 ) is believed to increase the credibleness of findings and research worker ‘s assurance.

Interviews and observations will be conducted on the enterprisers, pupils and instructors while analysis of papers will be used in analysing the information from course of study or lesson program of the entrepreneurship capable obtain from the relevant establishments. Interviews will be in the signifier of semi-structured and the chief subjects for the interview will be:

  • Role of the instructors, pupils
  • Role of the enterprisers
  • Important trait of import perceived by the enterprisers
  • Important trait of import perceived by the instructors, pupils
  • The challenges in presenting the instruction
  • The challenges in finding the traits
  • External influence on reassigning the traits

The empirical surveies for this research will affect several ministries in Malaysia that run higher proficient establishments such as Ministry of Education, Ministry of Human Resource, and Ministry of Entrepreneur & A ; Cooperative Development. However, the respondents for this survey will be selected from the establishments that offers plan for school departers ( after their Malayan Certificate of Education ) and those who took classs in the country of automotive technology. This survey besides involves enterprisers that registered with Companies Commission of Malaysia, listed in MARA entrepreneurship database, PUNB, SME Corporation and so on.


Malayan Education Systems

The Malayan Education System can be divided into few degrees ; primary, lower secondary, higher secondary and post secondary degree. The system is under a so called National Education PolicyA A under the Ministry of Education while the higher establishments are governed by the Ministry of Higher Education. Harmonizing to the policy, it is mandatory for all kids at the age of 7 old ages old to get down schooling at the primary degree. For every degree, there will be an appraisal in the signifier of scrutinies and the consequence will be used if the pupils would wish to use to be in get oning school and to come in the university degree. To exemplify better the instruction systems in Malaysia, please refer to the following tabular array.


Get downing Age

( old ages )

Assessment ( Examination )




Primary School Assessment Examination

( at the age of 12th )

Lower Secondary


Lower Secondary Assessment Examination

( at the age of 15th )

cubic decimeter After this scrutiny, pupils have to take to be in academic, Muslim or proficient and vocational watercourses

Upper Secondary


Malayan Certificate of Education

( at the age of 17th )

Malayan Certificate of Education ( Vocational )

Post Secondary


Malayan Higher School Certificate

( at the age of 19th )

This is optional. Most pupils who opt for station secondary are those who are non being accepted at any of the local universities.

Students can besides take to be in engineering schools as an option other than siting for Malaysian Higher School Certificate

Table3: The instruction system in Malaya

Technical and Vocational Education ( TVE ) in Malaya starts at the upper secondary degree. After the Lower Secondary Assessment Examination, pupils have the pick to be in the academic, Muslim or proficient and vocational watercourses ( UNESCO, 1995 ) . Those who choose to be in the proficient and vocational watercourse and have the lower limit needed makings will hold to use to be in the Technical Secondary School. [ 1 ]

In the proficient watercourse, pupils are offered to take one of the undermentioned classs ; Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Agriculture, Commerce, Food Management or Apparel Studies. While those who incline towards the vocational watercourse have to take Engineering Craftsmanship, Home Economics, Commerce, Computer Science or Agriculture. Currently Malaysia has 90 Technical Secondary Schools with an registration of 62,155 students. After completed at Technical or Vocational School, pupils have the pick to go on their instruction at the engineering schools to undergo classs at certification or diploma degree or at the university degree for first grade. Technical and vocational instruction at school and engineering schools are administered by the Technical and Vocational Education Division of the Ministry of Education.

Malayan Technical Vocational Education was created due to the importance of industrial and fabricating sectors in the economic growing of the state ( Hee, 1994 ) .A Its purposes is fixing for the future work force as Malaysia marks to be the industrialised state in 2020. TVE was hoped to bring forth skilled work force for the industries. A survey done by Mustapha in 1999 nevertheless shown that employers in Malaysia were non satisfied with the quality of Malayan proficient and vocational alumnuss due to missing of leading, communicating, interpersonal, critical thought and entrepreneurial accomplishments. In the same survey, he did reference in his findings that the employers were concerned whether or non the VTE systems able to bring forth enterprisers and business/industry leaders. Mustapha besides suggested that “the authorities particularly Ministry of Education should seek input from legion stakeholders, A such as, pedagogues, business/industry forces, parents, pupils, academicians, and other professionals before explicating major policy determinations sing vocational and proficient instruction and training”.A Mustapha and Abdullah suggested that “school systems at all degree should include entrepreneurship in their curriculum” ( 2001 ) .

The following table sum up the participant in the Higher Technical and Vocational Institutions in Malaysia ( Ministry and their proficient higher establishments ) which will go the sample of respondent of this research.


Institutions ( Numberss of establishments )

Ministry of Education

A· Academic schools offering proficient and vocational topics as an elected

A· Technical and vocational schools ( 82 )

A· Community colleges ( 17 )

A· Polytechnics ( 16 )

Ministry of Human Resource

A· Industrial Training Institutes ( 14 )

A· Advance Technology Centre ( 4 )

A· Japan-Malaysia Technical Institute ( 1 )

Ministry of Entrepreneur and Cooperative Development

A· Skill preparation Institutes ( 12 )

A· Advance skills preparation institutes ( 3 )

Ministry of Youth and Sport

A· Youth Skill Training InstituteA ( 7 )

A· Advanced Skill Training CentreA ( 1 )

Table 4: The participant in the Higher Technical and Vocational Institutions in Malaysia

Entrepreneurship in Malaya

Entrepreneurship had gained its importance in Malaysia both in construct and activity. It can be seen with the assorted back uping mechanism and policies that exist from support, the physical substructures to the audience services initiated by the authorities. The earnestness of this field perceived by the authorities can be seen with the puting up of Ministry of Entrepreneur and Co-operative Development in 1995 to cover with entrepreneurship issues and its development.

To hold a better apprehension of the Malayan economic, it is of import to understand the history of the state get downing from the colonisation of British ( Malaysia was known as Malaya before independency in 1957 ) . The segregation of economic activity sing to race hold been implemented by the British for the easiness of disposal and besides the operations of its gum elastic plantations and Sn mines ( Malaya chief economic activities during that clip ) . To assist the British to run the gum elastic plantation and Sn mines, migratory signifier India and China was brought in during that clip. Indian migratory workers work in the plantation while Chinese migratory workers work in the Sn mines. The Malays dominated the agricultural sector and lived in the small town. Chinese was allowed to make some trades and going the petit larceny bargainers and tradesmans in the towns. During this clip, merely members of the royal and upper-class households ( all were Malayans ) were allowed to work into the bureaucratism, while the remainder of Malays was restricted to work in a low-income agricultural sector as a husbandman or fishermen. This resulted in a society that was really much multi-layered, segregated economically and racially with the bulk of Malayans at the underside round ( Ariff and Abubakar, 2003 ) .

In order to repair the economic instability between races that exist before the independency, it was agreed among representatives of three major cultural groups ( Malays, Chinese, and Indian ) that upon independency, the Malays was granted certain privileges in the country of faith, economic sciences, and political relations. This was to lift up the Malays economic position which has been left out prior the independency by British.A

The New Economic Policy was introduced in 1970 as a turning dissatisfaction about inequalities between the Malays and the Chinese who were still deriving economic laterality. This two-pronged aims was to eliminate poorness and to increase Bumiputera ownership and engagement in the corporate sector, and high income businesss. The purpose was to achieve 30 per centum effectual Bumiputera equity ownership by 2000 but was extended to the twelvemonth 2010 due to the unachieved mark which is presently at 18.7 % ( 2004 ) .

Related essay samples:

  1. Entrepreneurial Leadership Is An Important Issue Commerce Essay
  2. Creating An Entrepreneurial Organization Commerce Essay
  3. The Purpose of Education Essay
  4. Speech about entrepreneurship and franchising Essay
  5. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Essay
  6. Primary and Secondary Education in the Netherlands and China Essay
  7. Skills vs Knowledge in Education Essay
  8. Reflection Paper – Entrepreneurship in Health Care Essay
  9. Role of Effective Communication for Enhancing Leadership and Entrepreneurial
  10. Role of Effective Communication for Enhancing Leadership and Entrepreneurial
  11. ?The important of unity in Malaysia Essay
  12. The Revolutionary Impact of Entrepreneurship
  13. The Vital Role Of Small Ventures Business Essay
  14. Job Application Letter Essay
  15. The German and American School Systems Essay