stored in both short term and long term memory system. According to this theory, short term memory can only retain information for a limited amount of time, around 15 to 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed. If it is not rehearsed, the information will start to gradually fade away and decay. Donald Hebb proposed that incoming information causes a series of neurons to create a neurological memory trace in the brain which would result in change in the morphological and chemical changes in the brain and would fade with time. Repeated firing causes a structural change in the synapses. Rehearsal of repeated firing maintains the memory in STM until a structural change is made. Therefore, forgetting happens as a result of automatic fading of the memory trace in brain. This theory states that the events between learning and recall have no effects on recall; the important factor that affects is the duration that the information has been retained. Hence, as stated by Omotayo (2013), as longer time passes more of traces are subject to decay and as a result the information is forgotten. One major problem about this theory is that in real-life situation, the time between encoding a piece of information and recalling it, is going to be filled with all different kinds of events that might happen to the individual.
Decay theory as stated by Omotayo (2013) explains that when something new is learned, a neurochemical, physical “memory trace” is formed in the brain and over time this trace tends to disintegrate, unless it is occasionally used. Decay theory states the reason we eventually forget something or an event is because the memory of it fades with time. If we do not attempt to look back at an event, the greater the interval time between the times when the event from happening and the time when we try to remember, the memory will start to fade. Time is the greatest impact in remembering an event.
According to Wesson (2012), while memory cannot occur without learning, once information has been learned, our memory may allow the learning to decay. Occasionally, memory will unintentionally play a bit loose with the truth regarding what was previously learned. In accordance to Robertson (2012), interference between memories may be due to an overlap between otherwise independent systems. Any overlap need not be complete because declarative memories may only interfere with a specific component of a procedural memory. The concept of an overlapping architecture explaining the interference between different memories is appealing because human functional imaging studies have demonstrated that brain areas such as the MTL are activated during both declarative and procedural learning, and so there is experimental evidence for an overlap between declarative and procedural processing. Thus, interference could arise from a competition between declarative and procedural processing for a shared overlapping resource. However, several recent studies have started to challenge the classical idea that memory interference arises from a competition between memories.
According to Thorne (2009), the memory demands for school-age children are much greater than they are for adults. As adults, we have already acquired much of the knowledge and skills we need to function day to day. Although the knowledge base for some fields such as technology changes rapidly, the new information is generally highly specific and builds on existing knowledge. On the other hand, school children are constantly bombarded with new knowledge in multiple topic areas in which they may or may not be interested. Additionally, they are expected to both learn and demonstrate the mastery of this knowledge on a weekly basis. Thus, an effective and efficient memory is critical for school success. An example added by Thone (2009) said that they may understand the three-step direction they were just given, but forget the second and third steps while carrying out the first step. If they are trying to solve a math problem that has several steps, they might forget the steps while trying to solve the problem. When they are reading a paragraph, they may forget what was at the beginning of the paragraph by the time they get to the end of the paragraph. These students will look like they have difficulty with reading comprehension. In facts, they do; but the comprehension problem is due to a failure of the memory system rather than the language system.
According to Lieury and Lorant (2013), memory has always been considered important for academic achievement. But, knowing the variety of mnemonic Mechanisms, it is not easy to ascertain which of them are concerned in school performance. Indeed, while some indicators of memory are very sensitive to ageing or to pharmacological protocols (Lieury, Trebon, Boujon, Bernoussi, & Allain, 1991; Allain, Lieury, & Gandon, 1993), they appear to be correlated only slightly or not at all with school results of pupils or students.
Lieury (2013) stated, that there is an important difference between short-term memory learning and long-term development. It`s possible for students to temporarily store knowledge in long-term memory for hours, or days, or even weeks without permanently filling it away. All new learning must be connected to prior knowledge, but the fewer connections there are, the less the new learning will stick. Isolated bits of information are more difficult to locate and use productively because there are fewer neutral pathways leading to them. That is another reason why it is important to teach new concepts through multiple pathways. If something has been taught verbally, then also deepen the connections with a visual example. If students have been writing about a topic, also have them try to verbalize the information in a class discussion, debate, or a role play.
In formation that has little meaning for students, such as empty formulas, word forms with no meaning attached, or jumbled concepts, is not deeply integrated into the neutral system and will often be quickly forgotten. Meaning is in these neutral networks, and to understand classroom content is to activate the relevant neutral connections. Knowledge that is connected to rich webs of schema sticks better and enables students to think more and more like experts (Lieury, 2013).
According to Santillano (2010), reasons for being late in class and other factors affecting the punctuality if a student vary. The study revealed that the causes of lateness among the secondary students in Nigeria were “going late to bed because of watching films and home movies, resulting into wake up late in the morning, distance to school and keeping friends who are not students” (Oghuvbu, 2008).
Romantic comedy film is a movie theme were two lovers initially hate or pitting each other before they realized their affections for one another, had founded by its viewers replenishing in their hope about love and gives educational background on their reciprocal relationship (Bachen and Illouz, 1996; Harvey, 1998; Holmes, 2004; Galician, 2004; Holmes, 2007; Peel, 2011). But, if misunderstood or misinterpreted, it will lead to bias perception and endorse dysfunctional relationship beliefs (Stern, 2005; Hall, 2005; Boveland, 2000; Segrin and Nabi, 2002). Thus, it still depends on an individual`s perception on how he or she will interpret the message of a romantic comedy medium (Shapiro and Kroeger, 1991; Johnson and Holmes, 2009; Holmes, 2009).
Romantic comedy film greatly influences its audiences, seeing as how this genre affecting their emotions. While this genre largely viewed by teens, somehow it has effect on their school performance (Johnson and Holmes, 2009; Abbot and Jermyn, 2009; Pardun, 2002). A study revealed that film watching late at night may cause tardiness. When a student goes to bed late at night might result to wake up late in the morning (Oghuvbu, 2008; Nakpodia and Dafiaghor, 2011).
Memory retention is one of the key memory processes. It is the capability to hold information and gradually decay over periods of time either when the information was not encoded well or there are competition arises between memories (McLeod, 2007; Wesson, 2012; Robertson, 2012; Amir and Malik, 2013; Omotayo, 2013; Mitchell, 2014; Cherry, 2014). Thus, memory demands for students is much greater than those for adults, romantic comedy films plays a significant role by affecting the mind and concentration of a student (Lieury and Lorant, 2013; Lieury, 2013; Thorne, 2009). It can distract the concentration and interfere the retention making the students forget what they have previously learned.
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